Ether, Chloroform, Nitrous Oxide, Ethyl Chloride.

i. Take 3 frogs of equal size, weight, and condition. Count respirations, and note general reflex excitability. Place No. 1 in a flask fitted with stopper and thistle tube. Noting time, introduce 5 mils Ether. Observe and record symptoms.

Compare symptoms and times with effects produced with frog No. 2 when 5 mils Chloroform are used.

Compare symptoms and times on frog No. 3 when briefly subjected to the fumes of Ethyl Chloride.

2. Etherize lightly a large frog. Open its thorax just enough to connect heart with writing lever. Secure continuous tracings while frog is gradually killed with definite increments of ether per second. Note amount of Ether used, time required to produce a fatal effect, and graphic phenomena obtained. Tabulate your results.

3. Repeat Experiment No. 2, using Chloroform instead of Ether, having selected a frog of equal weight and condition. Tabulate your findings.

4. Secure a mammal (cat, dog, or rabbit). Gently soothe the animal, and observe its "normal" rate of pulse and respiration. Under the instructor's guidance, etherize the animal, carefully noting all phenomena educed. Let a student assistant fasten the animal to the operating board, and make suitable connections for registering pulse and respiration. Obtain graphs of the ether norms, and compare with the pre-ether findings of the same systems.

Proceed to bring about the death of the animal by definite increments of Ether per second. Carefully note all phenomena, both graphic and general, especially danger signals. What system weakens first under the influence of Ether?

As soon as death seems to have occurred, attempt resuscitation by: (a) dilating sharply the anal sphincter, using forceps; (b) compressing the thorax at the rate of 60 times a minute; (c) injecting adrenin solution (1 to 1000) into the jugular vein, the carotid artery, or through the thorax into the heart.

5. Repeat Experiment No. 4, using Chloroform instead of Ether.

6. Under the direct guidance of the instructor, carefully etherize a volunteer fellow-student.* Pay strict attention to your task, while other members of your section take careful notes of their findings as to pulse-rate, blood-pressure, respiration, and such other general phenomena as may be elicited.

Let the subject later describe his sensations, both while going under the influence of ether, and while coming out.

7. As assignments permit, make careful studies of respiration, pulse, blood-pressure, and other symptomatic phenomena, on various subjects undergoing anaesthetization in the operating room.

* Note: The student acting as anaesthetist should first have read very carefully the discussion on Anaesthesia in "Cushny's Pharmacology," pp. 211 to 218 inclusive.

Experiment No. I

Date ....................................... Temperature..................... Humidity ........................................................

Data for observation

Frog No. 1 Ether

Frog No. 2 Chloroform

Frog No. 3 Ethyl chloride

Frog No. 4 Nitrous oxide

Sex of frog

Wt. of frog

Condition

Respiration

Amt. of drug

Time given

1st symptoms

2d symptoms

After 1 minute

Respirations

2 min. symptoms

2 min. respir.

Complete anaes.

Recovery time

Remarks

Experiments No. 2 And No. 3

Ether frog: Chloroform frog:

Time 5 10 16 20 25 3O 85 40 45 5O 55 60 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 5 10 15 20 25 30

Respiration

Paste samples of Ether kymograph record here.

Paste samples of Chloroform kymograph record here.

Experiments No. 4 And No. 5

Ether

Chloroform

Animal

Sex

Weight

Age

Pulse

Respiration

Kymograph norms

Kymograph samples showing systemic failure and death

Resuscitation Attempts:

(a)

(b)

(0

Remarks:______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Subject's initials or No..................................................................... Date...........................................................................................

Age.................Sex................Height.................Weight.................... Medicine..................................................................................

Condition.................................................................................................... Dose.....................................................,....................................

Thermometer............................................................................................ How administered............................................................

Barometer................................................................................._................ Remarks..................................................................................

Relative humidity................................................................................... Reporter..................................................................................

Experiments No 4 And No 5 25

Experiment No. 6. Ether

Observation on a fellow-student:

Observation

Normal

1st Stage

2d Stage

3d Stage

Recovery

Eye: Pupil

Conjunctival reflex

Naso-cardiac reflex

Bucco-laryng. reflex

Pharyngo-gas-tric reflex

Position of tongue

Salivary secretion

Facies

Resp. rate

Resp. quality

Heart rate

Pulse quality

Blood-pressure

Condition of skin

State of consciousness

Muscle tonus

Time

Subject's report:

Experiment No. 7. Ether. Observation Of A Patient In The Operating Room

Observation

Normal

1st Stage

2d Stage

3d Stage

Recovery

Eye: Pupil

Conjunctival reflex

Naso-cardiac reflex

Bucco-laryng. reflex

Pharyngo-gas-tric reflex

Position of tongue

Salivary secretion

Facies

Resp. rate

Resp. quality

Heart rate

Pulse quality

Blood-pressure

Condition of skin

State of consciousness

Muscle tonus

Time

Summary and remarks:

Patient's initials or No...................................................................... Date........................................................................................_

Age................Sex................Height................Weight................... Medicine..................................................................................

Condition.....................................................'............................................... Dose..........................................................................................

Nature of illness.................................................................................... How administered............................................................

Day of illness.......................................................................................... Remarks.................................................................................

Physician.............................................................Service.............................................................Reporter......................................................_.......

Experiment No 7 Ether Observation Of A Patient In  26