Synonym. - Gum Benjamin. A balsamic resin obtained from Styrax Benzoin Dryander (nat. ord. Styraceae).

Habitat

Sumatra, Java, probably also Siam.

Characters

In lumps consisting of agglutinated, yellowish-brown tears, which are internally milk-white, or in the form of a reddish-brown mass, more or less mottled from whitish tears imbedded in it. It is almost wholly soluble in 5 parts of moderately warm Alcohol, and in solutions of the fixed alkalies. When heated, it gives off fumes of Benzoic Acid. It has an agreeable, balsamic odor, and a slight, aromatic taste.

Solubility

In 5 parts of Alcohol; easily in Ether or Solution of Potassa.

Composition

The chief constituents are - (1) Benzoic Acid (see p. 657), 12 to 20 per cent. (2) Cinnamic Acid, C9H8O2 a trace. (3) Resin. (4) Volatile Oil.

Preparations

1. Adeps Benzoinatus. - Benzoinated Lard. Benzoin, 20; Lard, 1000; by melting and straining.

2. Tinctura Benzoini. - Tincture of Benzoin. Benzoin, 200; by maceration and filtration with Alcohol to 1000.

Dose, 1/2 to 1 fl. dr.; 2. to 4. c.c.

3. Tinctura Benzoini Composita. - Compound Tincture of Benzoin. Synonym. - Friar's Balsam. Benzoin, 120; Storax, 80;

Balsam of Tolu, 40; Purified Aloes, 20; by digestion with Alcohol, and filtration to 1000.

Dose, 1/2 to 1 fl. dr.; 2. to 4. c.c.

Acidum Benzoicum. Benzoic Acid

Hc7n5o2=121.71.

Source

From Benzoin by sublimation. Toluene (toluol) is generally the source of this substance.

Characters

White, or yellowish-white, lustrous scales or friable needles, odorless, or having a slight, characteristic odor resembling that of Benzoin, and of a warm, acid taste; somewhat volatile at a moderately warm temperature, and rendered darker by exposure to light.

Solubility

When pure, in about 500 parts of water, and in 2 parts of Alcohol. Also soluble in 3 parts of Ether, 7 parts of Chloroform, and readily soluble in Carbon Disul-phide, Benzol, fixed and volatile oils, but sparingly soluble in Benzin.

Benzoic Acid is contained in Tinctura Opii Camphorata.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr.; .30 to 1.00 gm.

Ammonii Benzoas. Ammonium Benzoate

Nh4c7h5o2= 138.72.

Source

Dissolve Benzoic Acid in Water of Ammonia and distilled water, and evaporate, set aside to crystallize. Hc7h5o2+Nh4oh=Nh4 C7H5O2+H2O.

Characters

Thin, white, four-sided, laminar crystals, odorless or having a slight odor of Benzoic Acid, a saline, bitter, afterwards slightly acrid taste, and gradually losing Ammonia on exposure to the air.

Solubility

In 5 parts of water, and in 28 parts of Alcohol.

Incompatibles. - Ferric salts, Liquor Potassae, and acids.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr.; .30 to 1.20 gm.

Sodii Benzoas. Sodium Benzoate

NaC7H5O2=143.71.

Source

Benzoic Acid is added to a hot concentrated solution of pure Sodium Carbonate, the solution is evaporated, cooled and allowed to crystallize. 2Hc7h5o2+Na2Co3=2NaC7H5O2+Co2+H2O.

Characters

A white, amorphous powder, odorless, or having a faint odor of Benzoin, and a sweetish, astringent taste; permanent in the air.

Solubility

In 1.8 parts of water, and in 45 parts of Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 60 gr.; .30 to 4. gm.

Lithii Benzoas. Lithium Benzoate

LiC7H5O2=127.72.

Source

By decomposing Lithium Carbonate with Benzoic Acid. Li2Co3+2Hc7h5o2=2LiC7H5O2+Co2+H2O.

Characters

A light, white powder, or small, shining, crystalline scales; odorless, or of faint benzoin-like odor, and of a cooling, sweetish taste; permanent in the air.

Solubility

In 4 parts of water, and in 12 parts of Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr.; .30 to 1.20 gm.