This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
(Abstracts) solid, dry, powdered extracts of double the strength of the crude drug. They are prepared by spontaneous evaporation of an alcoholic tincture at a low temperature, mixing with it enough Sugar of Milk to make the product weigh one-half of the original weight of the drug, and then reducing it to a fine powder.
Solid cylinders impregnated with various drugs, and used for introduction into the urethra, uterus, or nose. They are made either of gelatin (to be dipped in warm water before use) or cacao butter (to be dipped in oil before use).
Cachets, made of wafer paper, consist of two watch-glass shaped halves, enclosing the drug, which adhere when moistened. The cachet is swallowed, and thus nauseous drugs are not tasted.
Capsules, usually made of gelatin, are also used for enclosing medicines so that they shall not be tasted, and they are now made for containing both solid and liquid substances. They are either soft and elastic or hard. The " empty capsule" is of the hard form and is made in two parts, the body to be filled when required for use, and the cap to fit tightly over it when filled. Pills, cachets and capsules should be immediately followed by enough water to wash them down.
Soft, pasty masses used as a medium for the external and local application of a moist heat, with or without the addition of active medicaments. Any bland substance which will retain its heat and moisture for a long time is applicable for this purpose, a little oil or glycerin being often added to prevent caking. The substances chiefly used are flaxseed, elm bark, bread and milk, bran, and oatmeal.
To make a poultice properly, the bowl in which it is mixed, the water, the spatula for mixing and spreading the flannel or cheese-cloth on which it is laid, must all be as hot as possible. The meal should be added gradually to the boiling water, which is continually stirred. It should not be spread so thick as to make it inconveniently heavy.
The drug replaces the tobacco of an ordinary cigarette.
Another name for Enemata.
Fluids used as nasal douches. This term is rarely used in the United States.
Fluids used as eye washes.
Obsolete in the United States. Creams are preparations having glycerin, vaseline, or some substance as a basis, and used for external application.
Liquids intended for injection into the rectum and designed to act medicinally, to evacuate the bowel mechanically, or to serve as nutrients. When their object is to empty the bowel, they are large in bulk. to to 20 fl
300 to 600 c.c.; when it is wished that they should be retained, they are small in bulk, 2 to 5 fl
60 to 150 c.c., and after injection a towel may be pressed against the anus. Mucilage, made with starch, is a good basis.