(Either from oleo, to smell, because it stinks, or from anew to avoid, as being unpleasant to most people). Common garlic. Called also, from its antiputrescent property, theriaca rusticorum. It is the allium sativum Lin. Sp. Pi. 425. Nat. Ord. Liliaceae.

It grows wild in Italy, Sicily, and other warm countries; but in England it is raised in gardens from seed: it flowers in July.

The roots only are used in medicine; their virtues consist of a very acrid putrescent volatile oil, combined with a large proportion of mucilage, the principal effect of which is to warm and stimulate the solids, to promote a discharge from the bronchial glands and the kidneys; perhaps in a slight degree to resist putrefaction. Applied to the skin they excite inflammation; and sometimes raise blisters: they are used as a stimulating epithem to the soles of the feet, in the low stage of acute fevers, for raising the pulse and relieving the head. Sydenham says, that garlic excels all other applications for occasioning a derivation from the head in fevers of any kind; and he adds, that the efficacy of garlic is more speedy than that of cantharides, without a dissolution of the juices as when the common blistering plaster is applied. This, however, we now know to be hypothetical merely. Garlic beat up with an equal quantity of soft bread is occasionally applied to the feet, but is found of little service, except in children, who cannot swallow any medicine. It certainly is absorbed, as it affects the breath, and consequently may be useful as an expectorant.

Sometimes the garlic cataplasm causes much pain, but this would not happen if it was removed as soon as an inflammation appeared, and immediately after another cataplasm of bread and milk to supply its place.

The cloves of fresh garlic are bruised, and applied to the wrists as a cure of agues; and to the bend of the arm to cure the tooth-ach: held in the hand they are said to relieve hiccough; beat with common oil into a poultice, they resolve sluggish humours; and if laid on the navels of children, they are supposed to destroy worms in the intestines.

If garlic is taken inwardly, its action manifests itself through the whole habit, the breath, urine, and the matter of perspiration are scented with it. It assists digestion, and is certainly heating and inflammatory to the whole system, Its diaphoretic and diuretic powers have been useful in dropsy: it is a remedy for the scurvy; and in pituitous, and even in spasmodic asthmas that require expectoration. It has been said to be efficacious even-in subduing the plague, and its stimulant powers have been employed for preventing the recurrence of intermitting fevers. Bergius says, quartans have been cured by it, and he begins by giving one bulb, or clove, morning and evening, adding every day one more till four or five cloves be taken at a dose. If the fever then vanishes, the dose is to be diminished, and it will be sufficient to take one or even two cloves twice a-dav, for some weeks. This author also recommends it in deafness, and Dr. Cullen is inclined to believe it may be beneficial, as he has found the juice of onions in such cases very useful. A clove or small bulb of this root wrapt in gause or muslin, and introduced into the meatus auditorius, is the mode of applying it in these cases. Some authors have considered it as a lithontriptic. Where people cannot take the garlic in substance, the best forms are either the syrup or oxymel. See Cul-len's Materia Medica. If cows happen to eat the leaves of garlic, their milk will be strongly impregnated with its flavour.

In cold phlegmatic habits it is particularly useful, by its corroborant, expectorant, and diuretic effects. In the asthmas of such constitutions it is more eminently useful, and in these chiefly it has been supposed to possess a lithontriptic power.

Hoffman says, that if the cloves of fresh garlic are boiled in milk, they are one of the best anthelmintics; but garlic should be taken in the form of a pill or a bolus, fresh made. The syrup and oxymel of garlic have been thrown out of the British pharmacopoeias. Swallowing the clove of garlic entire, or cut into pieces, after having been dipped in oil, is considered as a very effectual mode of administration.

In hot bilious constitutions garlic is improper; for it produces flatulence, head-ach, thirst, heat, and other inflammatory symptoms: a free use of it soon promotes the piles in habits disposed to this complaint.

In drying it loses nine-fifteenths of its weight, but fresh or dry it equally gives out its virtues to boiling water, vinegar, or brandy, though it has been suspected that its powers are somewhat weakened by drying; and an infusion in the latter is highly useful to relieve or prevent uneasiness in the stomach and bowels from gout.

The oil, or active principle, is small in quantity, yellowish and ropy; but the juice may be inspissated into an extract by a gentle heat.

Rectified spirit of wine, digested on dry garlic roots, extract their virtues more readily, and more perfectly, than either water or vinegar. For those called

Allium Alpinum,

See Ophioscorodon.

Allium aginum,

Allium montanum,