The vertical soil piping may sometimes be run in a dark closet adjacent to the bath room, but more often must be run inside a narrow partition, or exposed to view. If it is desired to conceal the soil pipe, it should be boxed in, but the front boarding should be put up with screws, in order that it may be easily and quickly taken down when repairs or changes are necessary on the piping. Unless this provision is made, lathing and plastering must be cut out.

It will be observed that all the waste and vent connections of the bath-room work shown in Fig. C of Plate 20 are of either wrought or cast iron, with the exception of traps, their short connections, and the lead bend. This is the style of construction that is rapidly displacing lead work. This change in plumbing construction is without doubt as it should be. To be sure, the skill of the expert lead worker is no longer required to any great extent on a large part of the present-day construction work, but the workman of to-day must have a far greater knowledge of physics, hydraulics, and many other subjects which concerned the old lead worker but little.

Whenever a fixture is located at a greater distance than 6 ft. from its stack, it should not have a lead waste. The chief reason for this is that long lines of lead pipe are very liable to sag, thereby causing traps to be formed on the waste pipe.

Plate XX. Bath Rooms

Bath Room

Bath Rooms 69

Fig. c.

Bath Rooms 70

The lavatory in Fig. C being more than 6 ft. from its stack, a line of cast-iron pipe is run to it, and as the fixture is located on the opposite side of the room from the stack, the vent is carried up to the floor above, and then run over to the main line of vent, a course much preferable to any attempt to run the vent around the sides of the room.

The latter course would often be difficult, as it would generally be necessary to expose the vent to view, and to run it above the height of the fixture, detracting much from the appearance of the bath room. If obliged to run the vent about the sides of the room, it would be necessary to use nickel-plated brass pipe in order to obtain a good-looking piece of work. The vent of the lavatory is known as a continuous vent, and above the waste fitting should be run of wrought-iron pipe.

Separate entrance for the bath waste is obtained into the cast-iron waste, and the cleanout in the end of this horizontal line amply protects it in the event of stoppage. The main vent is shown of cast iron, also the vent for the water closet, which is taken from a vented T-Y, while the vent for the bath trap is of wrought iron, and connected to the cast-iron piping by means of a tapped fitting.

Another method of bath-room connections is seen in Fig. D. While separate entrances into the stack are not provided for the bath and lavatory, the connection of the wastes from the two fixtures into one pipe connected to its own waste fitting is much preferable to the method shown in Fig. B, Plate 19. Of course a stoppage might occur between the junction of the two wastes and the Y, but the chances are against it. Therefore there is not so much danger of a stoppage affecting both fixtures. In this work an S-trap is used for the bath, and a cleanout to the floor provided. If such a cleanout is not used, the flooring over, the trap should be put down with screws, in order that the trap may be made as accessible as possible in the event of cleaning.

Fig. D shows a bath room under conditions often to be found, that is, there are no fixtures wasting into the same stack, either above or below the bath room.

Under such conditions no main vent line is required, the fixture vents being connected directly into the stack above the highest fixture, and receiving their air supply through the roof extension of the stack. That part of the stack above the entrance of the highest fixture waste is called the soil vent in the case of a soil stack, and a waste vent in the case of a waste stack.

In the present instance, there being no fixtures either above or below the bath room, there are no conditions present which might cause the siphonage of the water-closet trap, and there is consequently no necessity of venting it, particularly as it is located on the top floor, close to the roof connection. Under these conditions the only reason for venting a water closet would be that the fixture was located at a considerable distance from the stack, in which case venting might be desirable. The question may arise as to the necessity of venting the other fixtures of Fig. D. In the case of these two fixtures conditions are somewhat different, for the water-closet waste enters the stack above the entrance of the waste from the bath and lavatory, and is of sufficient volume to make the possibility of siphon-age of these fixture traps strong enough to demand venting, especially as there is an additional danger that the waste from either the bath or lavatory may exert siphonic influence on the other. If, however, the lavatory entered the stack above the entrance of the water closet, through a half-S trap, there would usually be little danger of the siphonage of its trap, and consequently small necessity for venting it.

In the several illustrations of bath rooms shown in Plates 19, 20, 21, and 22, no other fixtures than the three common fixtures, water closet, bath, and lavatory, are shown.

In the modern, well-appointed bath rooms to be found in many up-to-date residences of the wealthy, however, many other fixtures and devices for the comfort of the household are to be found. Many of these bath rooms contain as many as six or eight different plumbing fixtures. Among these additional fixtures may be named the foot bath, sitz bath, child's bath, shower bath, and bidet. The use of two lavatories is occasionally noticed, the pedestal lavatory of porcelain making an excellent appearance.