In addition to the above fixtures, the use of shower baths in connection with the bath tub, and showers in connection with the lavatory, is much in vogue.

Mirrors over the lavatories, porcelain stools, bath seats, and the various nickel soap dishes, sponge holders, etc., also add much to the general style of the bath room.

Nearly all high-grade bath rooms are now furnished with porcelain fixtures, including the lavatory, a very small amount of marble now being used for lavatory work, as compared with its use a few years ago. The porcelain-lined bath so generally used in bath rooms well appointed, but not of the most expensive type, is generally painted some dull color, leaving it to be finished and decorated in the prevailing style of the room.

For the bath room, nothing neater can be devised than pure white, and, if decoration is desired, a narrow gilt band may be used.

Tiling is used extensively in up-to-date bath-room work, including floor, walls, and ceiling.

When the tiling does not cover the entire interior of the room, it is generally carried up on the walls to a distance of four to six feet from the floor, and capped with a half round or O. G. molding.

A very neat innovation in bath tubs is the porcelain or porcelain-lined tub, sheathed on its exposed sides with tiling to conform to the prevailing style of the room.

The bath-room connections shown in Figs. E and F, Plate 21, are designed to show the use of various special waste and vent fittings, which are possibly more useful in bath-room work than on any other part of the plumbing system.

The. water-closet waste fitting of Fig. F is along the same line as the vented T-Y of Fig. C, Plate 20, but is a better fitting for bathroom work, inasmuch as the branch is taken spirally into the side of the fitting, allowing the fixture to set closer to the wall. The water closet should set as close to the wall as practicable, as it is less in the way, and less liable to damage.

The water closet is vented from a hub on the waste fitting.

Plate XXI. Bath Rooms

Plate. 21.

Connections for

Bath Room

Bath Rooms 71

Fig. E.

Bath Rooms 72

Fig. F.

The waste fitting of the water closet of Fig. E is of similar pattern, with a special hub for receiving the waste of other fixtures. The work of Fig. E is almost entirely of iron pipe.

The triple fittings on the waste and vent lines are made in various lengths and with different numbers of openings. By the use of these fittings the vents are so connected to the several traps that there is little danger of stoppage of the vent openings.

The fitting shown on the main vent line of Fig. E is a very useful one, and may be obtained with a short or long arm, with or without the additional vent hub. In the construction of many houses the plumbing is centralized so that the bath room and the kitchen sink may be served by the same stack. This custom is a common one, and is recognized by the triple fittings, which have the third hub for the use of the kitchen sink. It may also be used for a lavatory in a room adjacent to the bath room.

The work of Fig. F is not entirely of iron or made up entirely of special fittings, but is intended to show the use of some of these special fittings on ordinary work. The special fittings shown are very few in number compared to the total number of these fittings. They may be procured for almost any special purpose, or to fit into almost any place.

These fittings are usually more expensive than ordinary fittings, but the practiced eye will easily see how useful they are, and how much work they save, for instance, in the matter of wiped and caulked joints, which are comparatively few, considering the amount of work covered.

The use of special fittings accomplishes two things: it reduces the number of caulked and wiped joints, and it generally allows the use of continuous vents, two very important features.

Too much attention cannot be given to the lighting and ventilating of the bath room. The local vent, which is described under Plate 18, is of very great value in maintaining wholesome conditions in the bath room, as it not only ventilates the water closet while in use, but ventilates the entire room at all times.

In addition to getting rid of the foul air, a good supply of fresh air should be furnished the bath room.

Exterior lighting should always be provided. This may always be done in detached buildings, but in buildings that are built close up to the walls of other buildings it is often a difficult matter. In the bath or toilet room receiving light from a light shaft, the air is usually lifeless and musty, and in such cases all precautions possible in the matter of ventilation should be taken, and the room and fixtures kept as clean and wholesome as possible. The existence of disagreeable odors in the bath room may often be traced to a source over which the plumber has no control, as it is as likely to occur in the plumbing system which is absolutely perfect as in the poorly constructed system.

This trouble sometimes arises from the use of highly scented toilet soaps, toilet water, etc., which are much in use in the private bath room, and but seldom used in public toilet rooms.

When mixed with grease, and waste filled with impurities emanating from the skin, these strong perfumes give rise to heavy, nauseous odors, which are extremely offensive and which are often mistaken for escaping sewer gas. Most of the trouble comes from the slime in the traps and waste connections, but a source which is not often taken into account is the patent overflow of the lavatory bowl. The fact that this is a prolific source for the same trouble, makes it apparent that the same evil often arises in the use of the private lavatory in sleeping rooms, where the presence of foul odors is especially unhealthful.