To remedy this evil, the strainers should be removed from the bath tub and lavatory bowl, and the waste connections and traps thoroughly cleaned out with potash or washing soda and boiling water. As to cleaning out the overflow, the bowl should be taken down and the overflow washed out in the same way. The traps and waste connections may be kept clean by occasionally using the alkali in the bath tub and lavatory, and turning on the hot water.

If this trouble should occur in the bath room of Fig. B, Plate 19, it will be seen that the long, unprotected lavatory waste would be the particular point to look to, as there is a large amount of surface here, which must constantly emit odors into the room. This point further emphasizes the fact that each fixture should have its own individual trap, located as close as possible to the fixture.

A point which may properly be mentioned in connection with bath-room work relates to the painting of exposed soil piping.

When soil pipe is exposed in the bath room it is unsightly at best, and to give it the best possible appearance it should be painted in the prevailing color of the room.

It is not sufficient to cover it with several coats of paint, as the tar will soon strike through and show.

The paint should not be applied until several coats of shellac, such as is used by pattern makers, are applied. The shellac will prevent the tar from striking through.

Another point which may be of value is in relation to the cleaning of marble and porcelain, which often become soiled with rust, oil, and other stains, which may generally be removed by a mixture of 2 parts of soda, 1 of pumice, and 1 of powdered chalk or whiting. These materials should be sifted and water added to form a paste, which should be applied to the soiled surface and allowed to remain for a number of hours, then washed off with soap and water.

A special feature of the bath room of Fig. G, Plate 22, is that, with the exception of the water-closet bend, no part of the work is of lead.

Fig. C, Plate 20, and Fig. E, Plate 21, also show bath-room connections which are of similar general construction, but in which special and expensive fittings are used.

The work in Fig. G, it will be noted, is performed by the use of common fittings carried in stock by all dealers. The concealed work may be of either wrought or cast iron.

Plate XXII. Bath Rooms

Connections for Plate 22.

Bath Room

Bath Rooms 73

Fig. G.

Bath Rooms 74

Fig. H.

If of wrought iron, the pipe should be galvanized. The traps for the bath and lavatory should be of brass. Another feature of this work is that each trap is served by a continuous vent. Several references have been made to continuous venting, a full description of which is to be found under Plates 26, 27, and 28.

In Fig. H is shown a bath room the fixtures of which are unvented.

While work of this kind is not allowed in many of our large towns and cities, it may be, and is used to a large extent in country districts and in the smaller towns.

If the work is installed in the right manner, it may usually be made quite safe, even though unvented. In the first place, the bath room is usually on the upper floor and close to the roof pipe, features which are of advantage, as the supply of air through the soil vent is quick and direct. There is practically no danger that the lavatory and bath will exert siphonic influence on the water-closet trap, but under the right conditions the flushing of the water closet may exert such influence on them. In the case of the bath tub, it is necessary usually to carry its waste into the stack below the lead bend. In order to give all possible protection to this fixture, its trap should be of the drum pattern or of some non-siphonable make, and the waste outlet into the stack should be as short as possible. The lavatory may best be located so that its waste may enter the stack above the entrance of the water closet. Here it receives the most direct supply of air through the soil vent, and if a non-siphonable trap is used there will be practically no danger from siphonage.

The same general precautions should be taken with other plumbing fixtures of the house. On an unvented system it is poor policy to locate a fixture in the cellar, close to the foot of a stack, and wasting into the horizontal line, as the liability of siphonage under such conditions is fully as great as at any other point in the system.

Before leaving the subject of bath rooms, it will be of interest to many readers, no doubt, to study the fixtures and trimmings for an up-to-date, high-grade bath room.

The water closet should be of the siphon-jet style, and of porcelain, and should have nickel-plated flush and supply pipes, with flush tank finished in the natural wood, or enameled to suit the finish and decorations of the room. The low tank is at the present time more popular than the high tank, and the flush valve, doing away entirely with the flush tank, bids fair to become more popular than either.

The flush valve may be exposed to view Or concealed in the wall behind the water closet.

The bath tub should be of porcelain, or at least porcelain lined, and should not be less than 5 or 5 1/2 ft. in length, and provided with nickel-plated waste and supply fittings. The bath may be furnished with a shower and shower curtain.

There is a wide choice in the selection of the bath. The effect of the solid porcelain tub is massive, especially if its base rests upon the floor instead of upon legs. The only decoration that the bath should have is a narrow plain band or other decoration a short distance below the rim.

In lavatories, also, there is a wide range. Porcelain is preferable for fine work, and the one-piece lavatory of enameled cast iron comes next.

If of porcelain, it should be furnished with porcelain legs and back, A very artistic fixture is the oval pedestal lavatory, which is massive and looks well with a heavy bath. The lavatory is much improved with a mirror following in its shape the general style of the lavatory. Nickel-plated legs or brackets may support the lavatory, but do not appear to such advantage as the white porcelain legs. White is by all means the color for the bath room. It is cool and clean in appearance, and obliges frequent attention, as any dust or dirt that gathers shows plainly.

Some fine bath rooms are now provided with fixtures which are supplied with water in such a way that no metal shows in connection with any of the exposed plumbing, the entire effect being of white.

The shower should be provided with a porcelain or porcelain-lined receptor resting on the floor, and nickel-plated combination needle and shower bath, with shower curtain.

The bidet is not in common use, but is to be found in some of the best-appointed bath rooms. It should correspond in style and decorations to the water closet.

The foot and sitz baths should correspond closely in their material, style, and decoration to the bath tub. The best manufacturers now carry the same style, design, and decoration right through the line of bath-room fixtures, so that there is no reason why all the fittings of the bath room should not be in keeping.