* The common bellows and rocking staff are too familiar to need description; bellows of the same general construction have also been made round and square; and amongst various others, are Street's patent bellows, 1815; Jeffries and Halley's improved blowing machine, rewarded by the Society of Arts in 1819. See Trans. Vol. 38, p. 87; but the mode which is now most generally used in large works is the revolving fan, first introduced for iron furnaces and forges, by Messrs. Carmichael, of Dundee. See Trans. Soc. of Arts, Vol. 48, p. 159. A similar instrunient on a small scale is sold under the name of Clark's Blowing Machine.

The notice of the bellows of the ancient Egyptians, the present Indians, Chinese, Neapolitans, and many others, made of goat-skins, bamboos, wood, and other substances, most of which apparatus consist of two distinct bellows worked alternately, some with the hands, others with the feet, (the reservoir of our double bellows not being employed,) might be considered curious but rather misplaced.

General View Of The Practice Of Forging Iron And S 10054

Fig. 86, represents tongs much used at Sheffield, amongst the cutlers; they are called crook-bit tongs; their jaws overhang the side, so as to allow the bar of iron or steel to pass down beside the rivet, and the nib at the end prevents the rod from being displaced by the jar of hammering; these are very convenient. Fig 187, or the hammer tongs, are used for managing works punched with holes, such as hammers and hatchets; as the pins enter the holes, and maintain the grasp, they should be made stout and long, so as to admit of being repaired from time to time, as the bits get destroyed by the fire.

Fig. 88, or hoop tongs, are very much used by ship-smiths, for grasping hoops and rings, which may be then worked either on the edge, when laid flat on the anvil, or on the side, when upon the beak-iron: and lastly, fig. 89, represents the smith's pliers, or light tongs, used for picking up little pieces of iron, or small tools and punches, many of which arc continually driven out upon the ground in the ordinary course of work; they are also convenient in hardening small tools.

In addition to the hearth, anvil, and tongs, the smithy con-tians a number of chisels, punches, and swages or striking tools, called also top and bottom tools, of a variety of suitable forms and generally in pairs; these may be considered as reduced copies of the grooves turned in the rollers, and occasionally made on the faces of the tilt-hammers of the iron-works for the production of square, flat, round, T form iron, angle iron, and railway bars, as referred to. The bottom tools of the ordinary smith's shop, have square tangs to fit the large hole in the anvil, in using them the fireman holds the work upon the bottom tool, and above the work he places the top or rod tool, which is then struck by the sledge-hammer of his assistant.*

The smith who works without any helpmate is much more circumscribed as to tools, and he is from necessity compelled to abandon all those used in pairs, unless the upper tools have some mechanical guide to support and direct them. In addition to the anvil he only uses the fixed cutter and heading tools; he may occasionally support the end of the tongs in a hook attached to his apron-string, or suspended from his neck, whilst he applies a hand-chisel, a punch, or a name-mark in the left hand, and strikes with the hammer held in the right. The method is however, ample for a variety of small works, such as cutlery, tools, nails, and small ironmongery, which are wrought almost exclusively by the hand hammer.

Attempts to work small tilt-hammers with the foot have been found generally ineffective, as the attention of the individual is too much subdivided in managing the whole, neither is his strength sufficient for a continued exertion at such work; but the "Oliver" described in note S of the Appendix to Vol. II., page 962, is one of the best tools of this class.

For single hand-forging, the fire becomes still further reduced in size, and proportionally elevated from the ground; and this being the scale of work most commonly followed by the amateur, a portable forge of suitable dimensions, and made entirely of iron, is represented in fig. 90; the bellows are placed beneath the hearth and worked by a treadle.

This forge is also occasionally fitted with a furnace for melting small quantities of metal, and with various apparatus for other applications of heat, such as soldering, either with a small charcoal fire, or a lamp and blow-pipe, which are likewise urged with the bellows. These applications, and also that of hardening and tempering tools, which will be severally returned to at therir respective places, arc much facilitated by the bellows being worked with the foot, as it leaves both hands at liberty for the management either of the work or fire, with the so-called fire-irons, which include a poker, a slice or shovel, and a rake, in addition to the supply of tongs of some of the former shown*.

* In fitting the hazel rods to the top tools, the rods are alternately wetted in the middle of their length, and wanned over the fire to soften them; that portion is then twisted like a rope, and the rod is wound once round the head of the tool, and retained by an iron ferrule or coupler; a rigid iron handle would jar the hand.

When these tools are used for large works, a square plate of sheet-iron, with a hole punched in the middle of it, is put on the rod towards the tool, to shield the hand of the workman from the heat; and it not unfrequently happens with such large works that the rod catches fire, and the tool is then dipped at short intervals in the slake trough to extinguish it.

Fig. 90.

General View Of The Practice Of Forging Iron And S 10055

The forge represented is sufficiently powerful for a moderate share of those works which require the use of the sledge-hummer; but when the latter tool is and, the anvil should not fall short of one hundred pounds in weight; and the heavier it is, the less it will rebound under the hammer.

* It has been considered unnecessary to represent any of the larger machinery for forging many of which hare bean repeatedly engraved for various popular works.