Rectilinear saws used by hand, are divisible into three groups, as arranged and tabulated on the next page.

Table Of The Dimensions of Rectilingar Saws

The first column refes to the pages where the saws and their uses are described The last column refers the Birmingham iron wire and sheet iron gage: the comparison of which with ordinary linear measure is given in the table on page 1013 of the Appendix.

(1). TAPER SAWS, MOSTLY WITHOUT FRAMES.

Page

With a handle at each end.

Length of Blade.

width at narrow end.

Width at narrow end.

Form of

Tooth.

Space of

Tooth.

Gage of

Metal.

700

Cross-cut saw ....

4

to

10

ft.

6

to

12

in.

3

to

7

in.

640 to 643 and 630.

3/4

to

1

in.

12

to

15

701

Long, pit, or whip saw....

6

-

8

-

9

-

12

-

3 1/2

-

5

-

650&

651

3/8

-

1

-

12

-

16

703

Pit frame saw........

4

-

6

-

7

-

11

-

3

-

4 1/2

-

-

-

1/2

-

3/4

-

15

-

18

707

*Fellow, or pit turning saw

4

-

6

-

3

-

4

-

2

-

3

-

-

-

1/2

-

3/8

-

13

-

15

With a handle at one end.

Length of Blade.

Width at wide end.

Width at narrow end.

Form of Tooth.

Points per inch.

Gage of Metal.

708

Rip saw.....

28

to

30

in.

7

to

9

in.

3

to

4

in.

644&

645

3 1/2

18

-

Half rip saw.....

26

-

28

-

6

-

8

-

3

-

3 1/2

-

-

-

4

18

to

19

-

Hand saw.........

22

-

26

-

5

-

7 1/2

-

2 1/2

-

3

-

-

-

5

18

-

19

-

Broken space or fine hand

22

-

26

-

5

-

7 1/2

-

2 1/2

-

3

-

-

-

6

18

-

19

-

Panel saw.....

20

-

24

-

4 1/2

-

7 1/2

-

2

-

2 1/2

-

-

-

7

19

-

-

Fine panel saw ....

20

-

24

-

4

-

6

-

2

-

2 1/2

-

-

-

8

19

-

20

-

Chest saw, (for tool chests)

10

-

20

-

2 1/2

-

3 1/2

-

1 1/4

-

2

-

-

-

6

to

8

18

-

21

711

*Table saw.....

18

-

26

-

1 1/2

-

2 1/4

-

1

-

1 1/2

-

-

-

7

-

8

16

-

19

-

*Compass, or lock saw . .

8

-

18

-

1

-

1 1/2

-

1/2

-

3/4

-

-

-

8

-

9

18

-

19

712

*Keyhole or fret saw.......

6

-

12

-

1/2

-

3/4

-

1/8

-

1/4

-

-

-

9

-

10

19

-

20

-

Pruning saw ....

10

-

24

-

2

-

3 1/2

-

1/2

-

1 1/4

-

644

661

4

-

7

13

-

16

(2). Parallel Saws with Backs.

With a handle at one end.

Length of

Blade.

Width of Blade.

Form of

Tooth.

Points per inch.

Gage of

Metal.

713

Tenon saw.......

16

to

20

in.

3 1/4

to

4

in.

644&

645

10

21

-

Sash.........

14

-

16

-

2 1/2

-

3 1/4

-

-

-

11

22

-

Carcase......

10

-

14

-

2

-

2 1/2

-

-

-

12

23

-

Dovetail......

6

-

10

-

1 1/2

-

2

-

-

-

14

to

18

24

722

Smith's screw head saw...

3

-

8

-

1/2

-

1

-

-

-

12

-

16

15

to

22

723

Comb cutter's saw........

5

-

8

-

1 1/2

-

2 1/2

-

-

-

10

-

20

18

-

25

(3). Parallel Saws used in Frames.

Stretched lenghtways.

Length of Blade.

Width of

Blade.

Form of Tooth.

Points per inch.

Gage of

Metal.

725

Mill saw......

4

to

8

ft.

4

to

5

in.

648 & 651

5/8

to

1

in.

10

to

14

-

Mill saw webb........

4

-

6

-

3

-

4

-

- -

5/8

-

1

-

17

-

20

-

Veneer saw......

4

-

5

-

4

-

5

-

645

2

-

4

-

19

-

21

-

Chair-maker's saw . . .

20

in.

30

in.

1 1/2

-

2 1/2

-

-

3

-

4

-

19

-

22

-

Wood-cutter's saw . .

24

-

36

-

2

-

3 1/2

-

644

3

-

4

-

19

-

22

-

Continental frame saw . .

15

-

36

-

1

-

3

-

645

4

-

12

-

19

-

24

728

*Turning, or sweep saw...

6

-

22

-

1/10

-

3/8

-

-

10

-

20

-

19

-

24

-

Ivory saw......

15

-

30

-

1 1/2

-

3

-

644

4

-

6

-

22

-

24

729

Smith's frame saw.......

3

-

12

-

1/4

-

7/8

-

646

10

-

14

-

20

-

26

730

*Piercing saw........

3

-

5

-

1/30

-

1/40

-

645

40

-

60

-

1/100

in.

732

*Inlaying or buhl saw . .

3

-

5

1/25

-

1/50

-

-

-

15

-

40

-

1/70

to

1/100

' Thorn Saws marked with an Asterisk are used for Circular ami Curvilinear Work*.

The first kind of saw is usually taper; and if long, it lias a handle at each end as in the pit-saw; but if short, or not exceeding about thirty inches in length, it has only a handle at the wide end, as in the common hand-saw.

The second kind of saw is stiffened by a rib placed on the back of the saw, and parallel with the teeth; the rib or back is generally a cleft bar of iron or brass; as in the tenon-saw, dovetail-saw, and others.

The third kind of saw is provided with an external skeleton, by which the saw-blade is strained in the direction of its length, like the string of a bow; as in the turning or sweep-saw for wood, and the bow-saw or frame-saw for ivory.

These three classes of saws differ much in proportions and details, as will be seen by the inspection of the foregoing table, and the subsequent remarks. The longest saws are placed at the beginning of each group, and the names mostly denote the ordinary purposes of the respective instruments.

Immediately subsequent to the description of the several saws, some account will be given of the general purposes of each instrument, and of its manipulation. The numbers prefixed to the table, refer to these respective remarks, which are expressed somewhat in detail, owing to the importance of the instruments themselves, and the circumstance that many of the topics will not be resumed. Whereas the turning, boring, and screw-cutting tools, the subject matters of the previous chapters, will be more or less returned to, in speaking of the practice of turning.

The saw which claims priority of notice, is that used in felling timber, when the axe is not employed for the purpose.

The felling-saw mostly used of late years in this country, is a taper blade about five feet long, with ordinary gullet teeth, closely resembling the common pit-saw, except that the teeth are sharpened more acutely.

The handle of the wide end, fig. 668, is fixed by an iron bolt and wedge; that at the narrow end, fig. 669, is calculated for two men, and is made of wood, except a plate of iron at the bottom attached by rivets or screws to the wood, so as to make a crevice for the saw, which is fixed therein by a wooden wedge on the upper surface of the blade.

\\ hen the saw has entered a moderate distance, wedges are driven in to prevent the weight of the tree from closing the saw-kerf and filing the blade; and it is needful the handles should be removeable, theft one or other may be taken off, to allow the saw to be withdrawn lengthways which could not be done, were the handles riveted on.

Table Of The Dimensions of Rectilingar Saws 200149

In cross-cutting saws, the straight handles are sometimes attached as in fig. 670, by a piece of sheet-iron serving as a ferrule, and extending in two flaps which embrace the saw, and are riveted to it.

Figs. 671 and 672 represent two other kinds: the former is attached by a bolt and key, and the spike is riveted through the wooden handle. In the latter the handle is perforated for the reception of a slender rod of iron, slit open as a loop to receive the saw-blade, and which is drawn tight by means of the nut and washer above the handle.

Table Of The Dimensions of Rectilingar Saws 200150

Some of the cross-cutting saws used in the colonies for very large logs, are made as long as twelve, fourteen, and sixteen feet, nine to eleven inches wide in the center, and six or seven inches at the ends. The peg-tooth is commonly used for them.

The long saw, pit saw, or whip saw, which follows in the table, is also the next saw that is commonly applied to the piece of timber, which is then placed over the saw-pit, in order that the saw may be used in the vertical position by two men, called respectively the top-man and the pit-man, the former of whom stands upon the piece of timber about to be sawn. The positions of the men are highly favourable, as they can give the saw a nearly perpendicular traverse of three or four feet; and in the up or return stroke, the saw is removed a few inches from the end of the saw cut, to avoid blunting the teeth, and to allow the sawdust free escape.

The long saw varies from about six to eight feet in length, according to the size of the timber. To adapt it to the hands of the sawyers, it has at the upper part a transverse handle or tiller, fig. 673, and at the lower a box, fig. 674. The tiller consists of a bar of iron, divided at the lower part to receive the blade, to which it is fixed by a square bolt passing through the two, and fastened by a wedge; and at the upper end, the tiller is sometimes formed as an eye for a wooden stick, or else it is made as a fork, and the handle is riveted on.

The handle at the lower part, fig. 674, is simply a piece of wood four or five inches diameter, and twelve to sixteen long, turned as a handle at each end; a diametrical notch is made half way through the center to admit the saw blade, which is fixed by a wooden wedge. Sometimes the bottom handle of the long saw is a flat iron loop, as in fig. 675, with a space for the fixing wedge, and an eye for the wooden handle. Occasionally a screw box is used, or one like fig. 674, but with the one handle screwed in, so that its point may bear upon the saw, in place of the wedge. In all cases it is desirable the lower handle should be capable of being easily removed.