Black Hawk, an Indian chief of the Sac and Fox tribe, born about 1768, at the principal Sac village on the E. shore of the Mississippi, near the mouth of Rock river, died at the village of his tribe on the Des Moines river, in Iowa, Oct. 3, 1838. About 1788 he succeeded his father as chief of the Sacs. In 1804 some of the chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes sold their lands, extending for 700 m. along the Mississippi, for an annuity of $1,000. Black Hawk said that the chiefs were drunk when they signed the treaty. During the war of 1812 he took part with England. The treaty of cession was ratified in 1815, and sanctioned by a new treaty in 1810, which was signed by Black Hawk. In 1823 the greater part of the tribes removed to their reservation across the Mississippi; but Black Hawk and his followers remained behind. In 1831, the land occupied by their villages having been sold to settlers, the crops of the Indians were ploughed up. Black Hawk threatened to retaliate, and the militia of Illinois were called out. He then retreated across the river, and engaged not to reenter the state without permission. But in the spring of 1832 he recrossed the river; a band of 50 of his warriors were attacked by the militia and put to flight.

The Indians now scattered into squads, and began an indiscriminate massacre of the whites. Gen. Scott was sent against them; but cholera broke out among the troops and hindered their operations. The Indians were finally driven to the Wisconsin river, where they were defeated on July 21 by Gen. Dodge, and on Aug. 2 by Gen. Atkinson. Black Hawk was captured, and a treaty was made by which the land of the tribes was sold, and the Indians, numbering about 3,000, removed to the region about Fort Des Moines. Black Hawk, two of his sons, and seven of his warriors, were for a time detained as hostages, taken through the principal cities of the eastern states, and then confined in Fortress Monroe till J une 5, 1833, when they were released and rejoined their tribes.

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Black Hawk, a N. E. county of Iowa, intersected by the Cedar and Wapsipinicon rivers; area, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,21,706. The Dubuque and Sioux City, the Burlington, Cedar Rapids, and Minnesota, and the Cedar Falls and Minnesota railroads traverse the county. The surface is occupied mainly by prairies, though portions of it are well wooded. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,300,824 bushels of wheat, 002,128 of Indian corn, 570,-340 of oats, 109,771 of potatoes, 29,235 tons of hay, 17,220 lbs. of wool, and 500,844 of butter. There were 7,450 horses, 6,407 milch cows, 8,004 other cattle, 4,479 sheep, and 13,-438 swine. Capital, Waterloo.