Pierre Leroux, a French socialist, born in Paris in 1798, died there, April 12, 1871. After studying several years in the college of Rennes and in the polytechnic school of Paris, he became a compositor and afterward proof reader in a printing office, and in 1824 was selected to be one of the editors of the Globe, a philosophical and literary journal, the organ of the doctrinaire party, having for collaborators De Broglie, Guizot, Jouffroy, and Cousin. The revolution of 1830 dispersed the editorial corps, and Leroux, who had zealously embraced Saint-Simonism, effected the transformation of the Globe into the organ of his new doctrines. He separated from Enfantin in 1831 on the question of the emancipation of woman, and with Jean Reynaud he edited for three years (1832-'5) the Revue Encyclo-pedique, which they made the organ of their Neo-Saint-Simonism, but which failed of success. They began in 1838 the Encyclopedic nouvelle, which still remains incomplete. He furnished numerous philosophical articles to the Revue des Deux Mondes during the first six or seven years of the reign of Louis Philippe. In 1840 appeared his most important work, De l'humanite, de son principe et de son avenir.

In 1841 he founded, with Viardot and George Sand, the Revue Independante. In 1845 he founded a printing establishment at Boussac, in Creuse, and published two journals and numerous pamphlets. He proclaimed the republic there after the revolution of 1848, and was chosen mayor of his commune. The same year he was elected to the national assembly, where he voted constantly with the radical party. But the arena of practical politics was unsuited to his mind. He left France after the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, and established himself on a farm in the island of Jersey. The general amnesty of 1800 permitted his return to France, but he made his home at Lausanne till 1809, when he went back to Paris. His various works contain a complete philosophy of life, embracing on the one side religious and metaphysical doctrines that incline to mysticism, and on the other a system of social organization. Besides the works which have been mentioned, his principal publications are:

D'une religion nationale, ou du culte (1846); Discours sur la situation actuelle de la societe (1847); De l'humanite, solution pacifique du probleme du proletariat (1848); Projet d'une constitution democratique et sociale (1848); Du Christianisme et de ses origines democra-tiques (1848); Malthus et les economistes, ou y aura-t-il toujours des pauvres ? (1849); La Greve de Samarez, poeme philosophique (1863-'4); and Job, a drama in five acts (1865). Several of these are reproductions from periodicals. Though knowing nothing of the German language, he also with the aid of a friend made a very successful translation of Goethe's Wer-ther (1843), to which George Sand wrote a preface. At the time of his death he was preparing a complete edition of his works.