Radziwill, the name of a family long distinguished in Lithuania and Poland. Nicholas IV., surnamed the Black, prince of Olyka and Nieswiez, the founder in the 16th century of the modern branch of the family, promoted the reformation, and published in 1563 the Radziwill Bible; but his sons returned to the Catholic church. One of them, Prince Christopher, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, of which an account has been published (Polish, Breslau, 1847; Latin, Braunsberg, 1861). He appropriated 5,000 ducats for the purchase of copies of his father's Protestant Bible, intending to destroy them. Among the other members of this family was Michael Jerome (Ge-ron) (1778-1850), an associate of Kosciuszko in the war of independence of 1794, and of Dombrowski in 1807. During the Russian campaign of 1812, Napoleon nominated him general on the battle field. In 1831 he was for a short time commander-in-chief of the patriot army, and after its defeat by the Russians he was detained by them till 1836. Subsequently he resided in Dresden.