William, an English historian, born near Liverpool, March 8, 1753, died in Liverpool, June 27, 1831. In 1774 he was admitted an attorney of the court of king's bench, and commenced practice in Liverpool. He took an active part in the agitation for the abolition of the slave trade, and published "A General View of the African Slave Trade " (1787); "A Scriptural Refutation of a Pamphlet lately published by the Rev. Raymond Harris, entitled 'Scriptural Researches on the Licitness of the Slave Trade,' in four Letters from the Author to a Clergyman" (1788); and "An Inquiry into the Causes of the Insurrection of the Negroes in the Island of St. Domingo" (1792). In 1796 he published "The Life of Lorenzo de' Medici, called the Magnificent" (2 vols. 4to), which was translated into French, German, and Italian; and in 1805 "The History of the Life and Pontificate of Leo X." In a supplementary volume, "Illustrations, Historical and Critical, of the Life of Lorenzo de' Medici" (1822), he replied to various criticisms.
In 1806 he was elected a member of parliament from Liverpool in the whig interest, and after the dissolution of that parliament in 1807 he published "Occasional Tracts relative to the War." He was also the author of other works of minor importance, and edited Pope's works (10 vols. 8vo, 1824). - Three of his sons became well known in literature. Robert (1790-1850) wrote poems, and completed in return for a legacy his friend Mr. Fitchett's posthumous epic "Alfred" (6 vols., London, 1844). Thomas (1791-1871). was distinguished especially as a translator and editor of Italian works. His more important publications are: a translation of the "Memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini" (2 vols., 1822); a translation of Sismondi's "History of the Literature of the South of Europe" (4 vols. 8vo, London, 1823); specimens from Italian novelists (4 vols., 1825), from German novelists (4 vols., 1826), and from Spanish novelists (3 vols., 1832); a translation of the "Memoirs of Scipio de Ricci" (2 vols., 1828); a translation of Lanzi's "History of Painting in Italy" (6 vols., 1828); and a "Life of William the Conqueror" (1846). Henry (1799-1836), barrister at law, published a life of his father (2 vols. 8vo, 1833), and wrote also "Lives of Eminent Lawyers" for "Lardner's Cyclopaedia," besides various legal works.
Henry Enfield, an English chemist, son of Henry, born in London, Jan. 7, 1833. He was educated at the Liverpool high school, University college, London, and Heidelberg university. While at Heidelberg (1853-'7) he published in conjunction with Bunsen a series of memoirs on the measurement of the chemical action of light, and other original investigations. In 1857 he was appointed professor of chemistry in Owens college, Manchester, in 1863 became a fellow of the royal society, and in 1873 received the royal medal of that society. He has published "Elementary Lessons in Chemistry " (1866), translated into several languages, and "Lectures on Spectrum Analysis" (1869), giving the first connected account of the discoveries in that branch of science.