S. Stehman Haldeman, an American naturalist and philologist, born near Columbia, Pa., in 1812. He was educated at Dickinson college, and in 1830 became assistant in the geological survey of New Jersey, and in 1837 of Pennsylvania, and discovered the scolithus lineasis, the oldest fossil then known. In 1851 he became professor of natural history in the university of Pennsylvania, and in 1855 in Delaware college, and also of geology and chemistry to the state agricultural society of Pennsylvania. He has made numerous contributions to entomology, conchology, and philology, including "Monograph of the Fresh-Water Univalve Mollusca" (Philadelphia, 1840-'45); Monographie du genre leptoxis (in Chenu's Illustrations conchologiques, Paris, 1847); "On some Points in Linguistic Ethnology" (in "Proceedings of the American Academy," Boston, 1849); "Zoology of the Invertebrate Animals" (in the "Iconographic Encyclopaedia," New York, 1850); "On the Relations of the English and Chinese Languages " (in " Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science," 1850); and " Analytic Orthography," which in 1858 gained in England a prize over 18 European competitors.