A S. W. County Of Pennsylvania, bounded N. W. by the Alleghany river and N. and N. E. by the Conemaugh and Kiskiminetas rivers, and drained by the Youghiogheny river and Loyalhanna, Jacob's, and Big Sewickley creeks; area, 1,040 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 58,719. The S. E. part is mountainous, and has a poor soil; the other parts are hilly and fertile. Iron ore, bituminous coal, and salt are very abundant. The Pennsylvania canal passes along the N. border, and the county is intersected by the Pennsylvania, the Pittsburgh, Washington, and Baltimore, and the Alleghany Valley railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 676,599 bushels of wheat, 43,886 of rye, 1,168,498 of Indian corn, 1,358,208 of oats, 148,248 of potatoes, 1,206,845 lbs. of butter, 178,650 of wool, and 61,495 tons of hay. There were 15,144 horses, 16,349 milch cows, 21,870 other cattle, 47,938 sheep, and 24,372 swine; 7 manufactories of agricultural implements, 1 of boats, 8 of bricks, 23 of carriages and wagons, 1 of cars, 1 of rectified coal oil, 5 of iron castings, 2 of paper, 16 of saddlery and harness, 9 of woollen goods, 23 flour mills, 31 tanneries, 16 currying establishments, 8 distilleries, 7 planing mills, and 7 saw mills.
An E. County Of Virginia, separated from Maryland by the Potomac, and bounded W. partly by the Rappahannock river, occupying a part of the peninsula called the northern neck; area, 316 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,682, of whom 4,151 were colored. It has a diversified surface, and the soil along the streams is very fertile. This county was the birthplace of George Washington, James Monroe, and Richard Henry Lee. The chief productions in 1870 were 29,896 bushels of wheat, 189,381 of Indian corn, 25,585 of oats, 3,497 lbs. of wool, and 4,245 of tobacco. There were 663 horses, 1,243 milch cows, 2,952 other cattle, 2,057 sheep, and 4,896 swine. Capital, Montross.