Avenzoar (properly Ibn Zohr), Abu Mer-wan, an Arabian physician, born at Pefiaflor in Spain about 1072, died in 1102. He began the study of medicine at the age of 10 under the direction of his father, who imposed upon him an oath never to make use of poisons. He was the preceptor of Averroes. Avenzoar tried to bring medicine within the range of experimental science. Several of his works, translated into Latin, have been published. His Rectifi-catio Medicationis et Regiminis was published at Venice in 1490 and 1496, with the remarks of Averroes in 1514, and at Lyons in 1851.


Aversa, a town of Italy, in the province of Terra di Lavoro, situated in a remarkably fertile region, 8 m. N. of Naples; pop. in 1872, 21,176. It contains a cathedral and many churches and convents, a foundling hospital, and a lunatic asylum founded by Murat, which was among the first to attempt curing the insane by occupation and recreation. The sparkling white Asprino wine of A versa is often sold as champagne, and its sweetmeats, especially almond cakes, are great delicacies. Aversa was settled by the Normans, and granted in 1029 to Rainulf, one of their leaders, who received from the emperor Conrad II. the title i of count of Aversa. In 1030 the inhabitants of the ancient city of Atella, the site of which is still visible in the vicinity, were removed hither. In 1061 the county was annexed to the principality of Capua, then a papal fief.


Avesmes, a town of France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Le Nord, on the Helpe, 50 m. S. E. of Lille; pop. in 1866, 3,737. It is one of the fortresses which protect France on the east, built under the reign of Louis XIV. according to the system of Vauban. It was bombarded immediately after the battle of Waterloo, almost destroyed by the explosion of a magazine, and for some time occupied by the allies.


Aveyron, a S. department of France, forming a part of the old province of Guienne, bounded by Cantal, Lozere, Gard, Herault, Tarn, Tarn-et-Garonne, and Lot; area, 3,375 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 402,474. It is named from an affluent of the Tarn, which rises in the department near its E. border, flows W. as far as Villefranche, and then S. to the confines of the department of Tarn. The Lot flows on the N. W. border. Aveyron is one of the most mountainous districts of France. It has mines of copper, lead, silver, zinc, iron, and coal; those of coal are among the most valuable in the country. Cattle are raised in great numbers. The famous Roquefort cheese is largely exported. The department is divided into the arrondissements of Rodez, Villefranche, Espalion, Millaud, and Saint-Affrique. Capital, Rodez.


Avigliano, a town of S. Italy, in the province of Basilicata, 11 m. N. W. of Potenza; pop. about 10,000. It has a handsome collegiate church, a royal college, and several convents. A portion of the town was destroyed by a land slide in 1824.