Guienne , an ancient province in S. W. France, a part of the old kingdom of Aquitaine, bounded N. by Saintonge, Angoumois, Limousin, and Auvergne, E. by Languedoc, S. by Languedoc and Gascony, and W. by the bay of Biscay. In 1152 the duchy passed to Henry Plantagenet (afterward Henry II. of England) through his marriage with Eleanor, niece of William X. of Aquitaine. The kings of England maintained their possession of it with some interruption till 1451, when it was conquered by the army of Charles VII., under Dunois. Out of the territory of Guienne the departments of Gironde, Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, Dordogne, Aveyron, and part of those of Landes and Tarn-et-Garonne, have been formed.
Guildford , a municipal and parliamentary borough, market town, and the capital of Surrey, England, on the right bank of the Wey, 29 m. S. W. of London, at the junction of a branch of the Southwestern with the Guildford and Reigate railway; pop. in 1871, 9,801. The town stands on a declivity sloping toward the river, which is here crossed by a handsome bridge. There are three parish churches, a hospital, a theatre, barracks, several schools, and the Guildford institute, with library and reading room. The chief manufactures are paper, powder, bricks, coaches, iron, and malt liquors; the trade is mostly in timber, grain, malt, and live stock. In 1036, under the reign of Harold I., Alfred, son of Ethelred II., after landing in Kent with the design of recovering the kingdom, was induced to enter Guildford, where he was made prisoner in the night, and his 600 Norman attendants were massacred.
Guillanme de Salluste dn Bartas, a French poet, born in Gascony in 1544, died in 1590 of wounds received at the battle of Ivry. His principal poem is La premiere semaine, ou la creation, which passed through 30 editions in six years. It was translated into English by John Sylvester. The most complete edition of this now obsolete work is that of 1611 (2 vols., Paris).
Guillanme See Jacquerie Caillet. .
Guillaume Adolphe Bougiereau, a French painter, born at La Rochelle, Nov. 30, 1825. He studied in the Paris school of fine arts, and has been prominent since 1855 among the artists of the modern French school. He executed the mural paintings in the St. Louis chapel of the church of Ste. Clotilde, and in the church of St. Augustine. His "Triumph of Venus" (1856) has been popularized by many engravings and lithographic drawings. There are many of his pictures in the United States.
Guillaume Amfrye De Chaulieu, a French poet, born at Fontenay in 1639, died in Paris, June 27, 1720. By his associates he was called the Anacreon of France, and by Voltaire the first of neglected poets. The best edition of his works appeared in 1774, in 2 vols. 8vo. His Lettres inedites were published in 1850.
Guillaume Lejean, a French traveller, born at Plouegat-Guerand, Finistere, in 1825, died there, Feb. 1, 1871. He became known in 1847 by a historical work relating to Morlaix, and in 1850 by one upon Brittany. Under the patronage of the government he explored European Turkey in 1857. In 1860-'61 he visited the region of the upper and the White Nile. In 1862 he was appointed consul in Abyssinia, and in 1863 was imprisoned and expelled by Theodoras. Before returning to Paris he explored several districts of northern Abyssinia, and at the end of 1865 he set out again for the East, and reached Cashmere; but not being able to advance to Bokhara, he resumed from 1867 to 1870 his explorations of Turkey. He published Voyage aux deux Nils (Paris, 1865).