Chaufeurs, Or Garrot-Tenrs, a class of brigands during the reign of terror in France. Their headquarters were first in the forest of Orgeres, near the city of Chartres, and afterward they infested other parts of the country in bauds, organized under the leadership of Johann Buckler, sur-named Schinderhannes, till 1803, when the measures adopted under the consulate put a stop to their depredations. They garroted their victims, and tortured and burned (chauffer) their feet to make them disgorge their treasures. While engaged in burglaries they put a black veil over their faces, or blackened them with soot.
Chaumont, Or Chaumont-Eu-Bassigny, a town of France, capital of the department of Haute-Marne, about l 1/2 m. from the confluence of the Marne and the Suize, 133 m. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 8,285. It has a departmental college and a public library of 37,000 volumes. There is a triumphal arch begun by Napoleon I. and finished by Louis XVIII. The manufacture of iron wares forms the leading industry; but there are manufactories of woollens, linen and cotton yarn, and a considerable trade in iron wares, grain, and skins. The allied powers concluded a treaty here against Napoleon, March 1, 1814, which afterward became the basis of the holy alliance.
Castlo of Chauaiont.
Chauny, a town of France, in the department of Aisne, partly built on an island in the river Oise, which is here connected with the canal of St. Quentin, situated on the Northern railway (from Paris to Cologne), 66 m. N. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 9,080. The town derives its principal commercial importance from the glass works of St. Gobain, which are about 7 m. distant. It has manufactories of cotton fabrics, soda, and sulphuric and muriatic acids.
Chautauqua Lake, a beautiful sheet of water in the centre of Chautauqua CO., N. Y., 18 m. long and from 1 to 3 m. wide. It lies 1,290 ft. above the Atlantic and 730 ft. above Lake Erie. Its outlet, which is navigable by small boats, opens into Alleghany river. The name is a corruption of an Indian phrase signifying a "foggy place," and was given in consequence of the mists which frequently rise from the surface of the lake.
Chauvinism, a term used in France denoting a fanatical adherence to an effete leadership or obsolete national aspirations. At the time of the disbandment of Napoleon's guards in 1815, many soldiers attracted attention by the coincidence of all bearing the name of Chauvin, and of all extolling the fallen emperor. Nicolas Chauvin, a brave but foolish grenadier, created especial merriment by his grotesque displays of attachment to his former chief, which were caricatured on the stage and in print. This is the generally accepted origin of the term, although some authorities seek to trace it to the French chauve (bald), and to connect with it an idea of senility and dotage.