Duren, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on the river Roer, 18 m. E. of Aix-la-Chapelle; pop. in 1871, 12,850. It has an asylum for the blind, and considerable manufactures of cloth, carpets, steel and iron ware, and paper. Under the Carlovingians Duren was a town of importance, and councils were held there in 761 and 779. Charles V. captured and burned the town in 1543.


Durkheim, a town of Rhenish Bavaria, on the Isenach, 15 m. N. W. of Spire; pop. in 1871, 5,572. The principal trade is in corn and wine; there are glass works and a paper mill. In the vicinity are the salt works of Philippshall, with three saline springs. The place is chiefly remarkable as a resort of invalids who take the grape cure. In the environs are the ruins of the abbey of Limburg and of the castle of Hartenburg. On the summit of the Kastanienberg is a rampart known as the Heidenmauer or pagan's wall (the scene of Cooper's novel of this name), said to have been a Roman camp. Turenne here defeated the imperialists in 1674.


Durlach, a town of Baden, at the foot of the Thurmberg, and on the right bank of the Pfinz, 4 m. E. of Carlsruhe; pop. in 1871, 6,327. It contains a fine castle, a parish church with an excellent organ, a quaint old town hall, and a statue of the margrave Charles II. in the market place. Linens, tobacco, chiccory, and fruits are produced here. It was the residence of the margraves of Baden-Durlach from 1565 to 1771, when that line became extinct.

Dutch Language And Literature

See Netherlands.


Dutteeah, a town of India, capital of a state of the same name in the district of Bundelcund, lat. 25° 40' N., Ion. 78° 31' E.; pop. over 40,000. It is nearly midway on the route from Agra to Saugor, 115 m. S. S. E. of the former. The town is in a narrow valley, between low rocky hills, and is surrounded by a wall 30 ft. high. The streets are narrow and crooked; but many of the houses, belonging to landholders of the neighborhood, are large and substantial. The rajah's palace and pleasure ground of 10 acres are surrounded by a high wall. In the grounds is a reservoir with a fine fountain, around which eight sculptured elephants spout water.


Duumvirs, among the ancient Romans, two officers appointed temporarily and for a particular purpose. They were therefore of various sorts, and were specially named from the nature of their functions. The duumviri juri dicundo were the highest magistrates of colonies and towns, where they had the rank of consuls at-Rome. The duumviri navales had charge of the construction and equipping, and sometimes of the command of fleets. The duumviri quinquennales were the censors of municipal towns. The duumviri sacrorum had originally the charge of the Sibylline books. The duumviri ludorum in the Byzantine empire were functionaries elected for one year to the office of exhibiting games at their own expense to the people.