Epinal, a town of Lorraine, France, capital of the department of Vosges, 195 m. E. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 11,870. It lies at the foot of the Vosges mountains, on the railway from Nancy to Belfort, and on the river Moselle, which is here separated by an island into two channels, dividing the town into three parts, connected by bridges. The fortifications built in the 13th century have been destroyed, but the ruins of an old castle remain. The town is well built, and has a Gothic church of the 14th century, a theatre, hospital, communal college, museum, and public library of 20,000 volumes, tanneries, and manufactories of cutlery, copper, china ware, paper, and oil. It was occupied by the Germans Oct. 11, 1870. Marble of various colors and freestone are quarried in the vicinity.


Epiornis, one of the gigantic ostrich-like birds of which the dinornis is the type. It was a native of Madagascar, and became extinct probably since the historic period, or at any rate since the appearance of man. The E. maximus, judging from the bones of the leg, must have been at least 12 ft. high. The egg measured 13 1/2 in. in length, being as largo as 6 ostrich eggs or 144 hen's eggs. This bird, though wingless, may have given rise to the fabled roc; and it must have been seen by primitive man, whose traditions have handed down to eastern nations an exaggerated account of its size.

Epistle To Titus

Epistle To Titus, a canonical book of the New Testament, addressed by the apostle Paul to his disciple Titus. This and the two epistles to Timothy form the pastoral letters of the apostle, all of which have so many points in common that their authenticity has been generally attacked and defended simultaneously. The date of the Epistle to Titus has been the subject of much dispute, some fixing it as early as the year 52, others as late as 65, others at various intermediate years. The apostle furnishes Titus, whom he had left behind in Crete, with rules of conduct for himself, especially in regard to the appointment of elders (i. 5-9), and certain false teachers (i. 10-16), as well as for Christians in general (ch. ii. and iii.). The commentaries on the Epistles to Timothy generally include also the Epistle to Titus. (See Timothy, Epistles to).


Epsom (Sax. Ebbsham), a market town of Surrey, England, on the margin of Banstead downs, 13 m. S. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 6,276. At one time it promised to become a prominent watering place, in consequence of the discovery of medicinal springs impregnated with sulphate of magnesia, from which the celebrated Epsom salt was manufactured. The springs are no longer visited, but the town has gained another attraction in the great annual races held during the week preceding Whitsuntide on the neighboring downs. They are attended by nearly 100,000 persons of every class of society, and the grand stand on the race course, erected in 1829-'30, will hold 7,500 persons. The chief excitement centres in the race for the Derby stakes, instituted in 1780, which takes place on Wednesday.