Flavins Julius Constans

Flavins Julius Constans, emperor of Rome, youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, born about A. D. 320, died in 350. At an early age he was appointed governor of western Illyricum, Italy, and Africa, and on the division of the empire at his father's death in 337 received those countries as his portion. His brother Constantine, having invaded his territory, was killed at the battle of Aquileia in 340, and Constans became emperor of the entire West. He is represented as weak, profligate, and rapacious. His misrule caused Magnentius, commander of the troops in Gaul, to revolt and to send emissaries to put him to death. He fled toward Spain, but was overtaken and slain. He protected the Christian faith, as established by the council of Nice, against the Arians and Donatists, and closed many of the pagan temples.

Flavius Honorius

Flavius Honorius. a Roman emperor of the "West, second son of Theodosius the Great, born in Constantinople in September, 384, died in Ravenna in August, 423. On the death of his father in 395 he succeeded to the possession of the West, and resided during several years of his minority at Milan, while his commander-in-chief and father-in-law Stilicho carried on the war against Alaric, king of the Visigoths. Stilicho was put to death in 408 on a charge of treason, and in 410 Rome was taken and plundered by Alaric. (See Stilicho, and Alaric.) While insurrections broke out in many parts of the empire, and his general Constan-tius was able to protect only Italy and portions of the transalpine provinces, Honorius resided ingloriously in Ravenna. He was weak, vacillating, and stupid, and his long reign determined the downfall of the empire.

Florent Willems

Florent Willems, a Belgian painter, born in Liege about 1812. He studied at the academy of Mechlin, and in 1839 settled in Paris. He excels in genre pictures, and his female costumes are especially fine. His best known pieces include "A Musical Party," "The Coquette," " Visit of Maria de' Medici to Rubens," " The Betrothal Ring," " The Armorer," "The Widow," "The Message," "The Farewells," "I Was There," "The Intimate Friends," "The Confidence," "The Sortie," " The Messenger," and " The Visit".

Floyer Sydenham

Floyer Sydenham, an English scholar, born in 1710, died April 1, 1787. He was educated at Oxford, where he took the degree of M. A. in 1734. He translated the greater part of Plato's works (3 vols. 4to, 1759-80). Thomas Taylor completed the translation in 1804. Sydenham also published " A Dissertation on the Doctrine of Heraclitus" (1775), and Onomaaticon Theologi-cum (1784). His sufferings from poverty in his old age, and his death in the debtors' prison, led to the foundation of the literary fund.

Flying Squirrel

See Flying Squirrel.

Fog Signals

See Lighthouse, vol. x., p. 457.

Ford Madox Brown

Ford Madox Brown, an English painter, born at Calais, France, in 1821. He studied his art in Belgium and Paris, and sent two cartoons to the competition in Westminster hall in 1844, and a cartoon and fresco in 1845. After visiting Italy he painted " WyclifFe reading his Translation of the Scriptures," and in the following year exhibited "King Lear" and the "Young Mother." He produced in 1851, at the royal academy, a large painting of "Chaucer reciting his Poetry at the Court of Edward III." "Christ washing Peter's Feet," exhibited in 1852, gained the prize of the Liverpool academy in 1856. One of his latest works is entitled "The English Fireside".