Gwinnett , a N. county of Georgia, bounded N. W. by the Chattahoochee river, and drained by head streams of the Appalachee, Yellow, and Ulcofauhachee; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,431, of whom 2,159 were colored. It is traversed by the Atlanta and Richmond Air-Line railroad. It is rich in minerals, including gold, which is found on the Chattahoochee, iron, antimony, and superior granite. The surface is hilly and the soil of the river bottoms fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 55,102 bushels of wheat, 206,210 of Indian corn, 31,707 of oats, 16,964 of sweet potatoes, 65,787 lbs. of butter, and 1,391 bales of cotton. There were 1,058 horses, 1,855 milch cows, 2,789 other cattle, 6,115 sheep, and 8,496 swine. Capital, Lawrenceville.
Gxossus , or Gnoses. See Cnossus.
Gymnosophists , (Gr. naked, and a philosopher), a sect of ancient Indian philosophers, so called by the Greeks be-cause they went naked, or almost naked. They were also called Brahmans.
They dwelt in the woods, and lived on the wild products of the earth. They were remarkable for their contempt of death, and practised suicide by burning. In this way Calanus sacrificed himself at Babylon, in the presence of Alexander the Great, and Xari-marus at Athens, in that of Augustus. The gymnosophists had a great reputation for wisdom and learning. Their most prominent tenet was the doctrine of the immortality and transmigration of the soul.
Gymnotus ,.See Electric Fishes.
Gyongyos , a town of Hungary, in the county of Heves, 44 m. N. E. of Pesth; pop. in 1869, 15,830. It is situated at the foot of the Matra range, contains a fine castle in which is an interesting collection of armor, four Catholic churches, a Franciscan monastery, town house, and gymnasium. It has extensive manufactories of woollen stuffs, several tanneries and mills, an active trade in cattle and cheese, a weekly market, and numerous well frequented fairs. Near it are silver and copper mines.
Gyula , a market town of Hungary, capital of the county of Bekes, 30 m. N. of Arad; pop. in 1870, 18,495. It is divided by the White Koros river into two distinct villages, surnamed Magyar and Nemet (German), in one of which Hungarian and in the other German is principally spoken. It has a Greek united, a Greek non-united, and a Protestant church, a castle, a court house, and several oil mills. The vine is extensively cultivated in the neighborhood, and there is a trade in wine, salt, and cattle.
Haarlem Meer, Or Lake Of Haarlem a former lake 14 m. long and 10 m. broad, covering 70 sq. m., communicating N. with the Zuyder Zee by the inlet called the Y, and S. with the Old Rhine, and occupying, with an average depth of water of 13 ft., the area between the cities of Haarlem, Leyden, and Amsterdam. This sheet of water was formed in the 16th century by an inundation which united four ponds into one, and destroyed several villages. It gradually encroached on the land, till in the present century it covered 45,000 acres. It was drained between 1839 and 1852, and almost the whole of it was reclaimed. It forms now a commune with a population of about 10,000. (See Drainage.)