Jakob Noggerath

Jakob Noggerath, a German geologist, born in Bonn, Oct. 10, 1788. In 1814 he became professor of mineralogy and geology in the university, of Bonn. His chief works are: Das Gebirge in Rheinland- Westphalen (7 vols., Bonn, 1821-'G); Der Bau der Erdrinde nach demheutigenStandpunMeder Geognosie(1838); Die Entstehung der Erde (1843); Die Entstehung wad Ausbildung der Erde (Stuttgart, 1847); and Die Erdbeben im Rlieingebiet in den Jahren 18G8-'70 (Bonn, 1870).

Jakob Salomon Bartholdy

Jakob Salomon Bartholdy, a German diplomatist and patron of art, born in Berlin, May 13, 1779, died in Borne, July 27, 1825. He was of a rich Jewish family, studied at Konigsberg, spent several years in Paris, visited Italy and Greece, and in 1805 became a convert to Protestantism. He fought in the Austrian army against the French, and roused the national spirit by his Krieg der tiroler Landleute, 1809 (Berlin, 1814). In 1813 he held a place in the Prussian chancery under Hardenberg, attended the congresses of Vienna and Aix-la-Chapelle, and was consul general in Italy from 1815 to 1818, and afterward charge d'affaires in Florence. He published in 1815 an anonymous biography of his friend Cardinal Consalvi, employed Cornelius, Overbeck, and other German artists in Rome in fresco painting, and left a large art collection, the greater part of which, chiefly bronzes, vases, and terra cotta, has passed into the possession of the museum of Berlin.

Jakoh Daniel Burgschmiet

Jakoh Daniel Burgschmiet, a German sculptor and bronze founder, born in Nuremberg in 1796, died March 7, 1858. He established in 1819 a manufactory of mechanical toys, and subsequently studied his art in his native town and in Paris. Among his notable productions are statues of Melanchthon, Albert Durer (both in Nuremberg), Beethoven (in Bonn), the emperor Charles IV. (in Prague), and Luther (in Mohra). He died while at work upon the colossal monument of Radetzky at Prague, which has since been completed by his son-in-law Lenz, who took charge of his studio.


Jamaltica, a collection of ruins in Honduras, 20 m. N. of Comayagua. They consist of a series of rectangular tumuli faced with stones, and ascended by flights of steps, supporting the remains of what appear to have been ancient edifices. The principal tumulus stands on a broad terrace paved with stones, and is surrounded by smaller mounds regularly placed. The adjacent valley is full of remains, and many vases skilfully wrought and beautifully painted, besides various articles of sculpture well executed, are found in making excavations. Both ruins and vases resemble those found at Copan.

James Atkins Meigs

James Atkins Meigs, an American physician, born in Philadelphia, July 31, 1829. He graduated at Jefferson medical colleere in 1851, be-came professor of the institutes of medicine in the Philadelphia college of medicine in 1857, and in 1859 was transferred to the same chair in the medical department of Pennsylvania college, and in 1868 to Jefferson medical college. He edited Kirke's " Manual of Physiology," contributed to Nott and Gliddon's " Indigenous Races of the Earth" an article on "The Cranial Characteristics of the Races of Men," and has published various other scientific papers.