Jean Cottereau

See Chouans.

Jean Cousin

Jean Cousin, a French painter, born at Soucy, near Sens, about 1500, died about 1589. His paintings on glass, many of which exist in churches and palaces, are still highly valued, some having been preserved, as the "Legend of St. Eutopius" and the "Sibyl consulted by Augustus," in the cathedral church of Sens. A large painting on canvas, the "Last Judgment," belongs to the collection of the Louvre. Some sculptures are attributed to him. He is the author of two treatises, Le livre de la perspective (Paris, 1560) and La vraie science de la pourtraicture (1571). He is reckoned by many as the founder of the French school of painting.

Jean Cruveilhier

Jean Cruveilhier, a French physician, born at Limoges, Feb. 9, 1791. He studied under Boyer and Dupuytren, was a professor at Mont-pellier, and became attached to the faculty of Paris in 1825. In 1826 he reorganized the anatomical society, which in 1769 had been founded by Dupuytren, and in 1835 became professor of pathological anatomy. His great work is the Anatomie pathologiaue du corps Jiumain (2 vols, fol., with 233 plates, 1829-'40); he also published Anatomie dusystdme nerveux de l'homme (1845), Traite d'anatomie descriptive (1851), and Traite d'anatomic patholo-gique generate (5 vols., 1849-'54).

Jean De La Balue

Jean De La Balue, a French prelate and Statesman, born at Verdun about 1122, died in Ancona in Ootober, 1491. Having become a priest, he ingratiated himself with the bishop of Poitiers, became his executor, defrauded his heirs, trafficked in preferments, and succeeded in gaining the confidence of Louis XI., who made him secretary, almoner, bishop of Evreux, and eventually prime minister. About 1466 his efforts for the abolition of the "Pragmatic Sanction" gained for him from Pope Paul II. a cardinal's hat. Having been detected in a treasonable correspondence in 1460, the king confined him at the castle of Locle in an iron cage, from which he was released after 11 years at the solicitation of Pope Sixtus IV., who showered wealth and honors upon him and sent him as legate to Paris. Upon the death of Sixtus (1484) he fled from France, and Pope Innocent VIII. made him bishop successively of Albano and of Preneste, and protector of the order of Malta.

Jean Denis Attiret

Jean Denis Attiret, a French Jesuit and painter, born at Dole in 1702, died in Peking in 1768. He studied at Rome, and had already produced some good pictures when he entered the society of the Jesuits at Avignon. In 1737 he went to Peking, at the solicitation of the French Jesuit missionaries stationed there, and was employed by the emperor Kien Lung. He produced an immense number of paintings-and drawings, mostly in water colors, accurately depicting Chinese physiognomy, dress, and habits, as well as triumphs, festivals, and. processions. A series of drawings, representing Chinese battles, were engraved in France, so gratifying the emperor that he appointed the artist a mandarin.