Jean Caturze, a French heretic, born at Li-moux, died at the stake at Toulouse in June, 1532. He was a popular professor of law and other sciences, and was driven in 1531 from his native place on account of his heretical doctrines. The next year he was arrested in Toulouse and sentenced to be burned. The accounts are conflicting in regard to the precise facts, but it is certain that he was put to death as a heretic, and that his friends, and especially his pupils, regarded him as a martyr, Etienne Volet, who defended him in a public speech (Oct. 9, 1532), was himself eventually doomed to a martyr's death in Paris, Aug. 3, 1546. Rabelais alludes to the tragic end of Caturze in his Pantagruel.
Jean Chardin, a French merchant, born in Paris in November, 1643, died in London in January, 1713. He went to the East to trade in jewelry, became the favorite purveyor of the shah of Persia, and eventually produced a book of his travels and experiences in that country, which has been found true by subsequent travellers, and translated into many foreign Ian-guages. The London edition of 1086 contains only the description of his journey to Ispahan. Complete editions of the work, which is entitled Journal du voyage du chevalier Chardin en Perse et aux Indes Oricntalcs, par la Mer Noire et par la Colchide, appeared in 1711 and 1735. The most highly valued edition is that of Langle.s, the orientalist, who enriched it with a map, and with an abridged history of Persia (Paris, 1811). A Protestant by birth, Oliar-din was compelled on his return from the East in 1681 to seek refuge in England, where he was knighted and appointed agent of the East India company in Holland.
Jean Charles Langlois, a French painter, born at Beaumont-en-Auge, July 22, 1789, died in Paris in 1870. He was in the army more than 40 years, till 1849, and exhibited panoramas of the principal battles he had witnessed, his "Capture of the Malakoff " especially attracting great attention. He published several military and other narratives.
Jean Charles Leveque, a French philosopher, born in Bordeaux, Aug. 7, 1818. After teaching philosophy in the colleges at Angouleme, Besancon, Athens, Toulouse, and Nancy, he was called in 1850 to the college de France at Paris, where in 1861 he succeeded Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire as titular professor of Greek and Latin philosophy. In 1865 he became member, and in 1873 vice president of the academy of moral and political sciences. Several French academies have awarded prizes to his principal work on aesthetics, La science du beau etu-diee dans ses principes, ses applications et son histoire (2 vols., 1860).
Jean Chastel. See Chatel.
Jean Claude, a French Protestant clergyman, born near Agen in 1619, died at the Hague, Jan. 13, 1687. He officiated as pastor at Nimes and Montpellier, but owing to his opposition to the government scheme for the reunion of the Protestants and Roman Catholics, he was interdicted from preaching. He wrote against Arnauld and Nicole on the doctrine of tran-substantiation, and in 1678 held a discussion with Bossuet in presence of Mlle, de Duras, a niece of Turenne, who wished to review the grounds of her faith by hearing the arguments of these distinguished champions. Bossuet published an account of the conference, which was answered by Claude. On the very morning on which the revocation of the edict of Nantes was registered at Paris, he was ordered to leave France within 24 hours. He retired to Holland, where he was received by the prince of Orange, who settled a pension upon him. The most important of his works is his Defense de la reformation (Rouen, 1673).