Olympe Audouard

Olympe Audouard, a French traveller and writer, born about 1830. Having separated from her husband, who was a notary of Marseilles, she visited Egypt, Turkey, Russia, and the United States, contributing to newspapers and delivering lectures in New York (1868) and in Paris (1869). Her principal works are: Comment aiment les hommes (1861; 3d ed., 1865); Les mysteres du serail et des harems turcs (1863); Les mysteres de l'Egypte devoiles (1865); Guerre aux hommes (1866); L'Orient et ses peuplades (1867); Lettre aux deputes, les droits de la femme (1867); and A travers l'Amerique du Nord (Paris, 1871).

Olympiad

See Chronology, vol. iv., p. 557.

Omar II. (Abu Hafs)

Omar II. (Abu Hafs), eighth caliph of the Ommiyades, succeeded Solyman in September, 717, died early in 720. He was a descendant of Omar I. To reconcile the houses of Omar and Ali, he revoked the maledictions against the partisans of the latter, which had been read in all the mosques since the time of Moawiyah, and restored to them the lands given to Ali by the prophet. But members of the ruling family gave him a slow poison, of which he died.

Omentum

Omentum, a membranous sheet, composed of two or more folds of the peritoneum extended between certain of the abdominal organs. Three parts of this sheet are usually distinguished, namely: the gastro-hepatic omentum, a double fold, extending from the liver to the stomach; the gastro-splenic omentum, a double fold extending from the great pouch of the stomach to the spleen; and the great omentum, a quadruple fold, suspended from the great curvature of the stomach and the transverse colon, and hanging down in front of the mass of the small intestine. The great omentum is distinguished from the others by containing, sometimes in considerable quantity, a collection of adipose tissue, which forms an anterior covering or protection for the small intestine. A portion of it sometimes protrudes, either alone or in company with a knuckle of intestines, into the sac of a hernia. When the omentum alone protrudes, it constitutes omental hernia.

Omish

See Mennonites.

Omphale

Omphale, in Greek legends, the daughter of the Lydian king Jardanus, and wife of Tmolus, whom she succeeded in the government. Mercury sold Hercules to her for a slave, and by him she had several children. Hercules, to please her, assumed female garments and spun among the female slaves, while she wore the lion's skin and wielded the club.

Omsk

Omsk, a town of Siberia, in the government and 300 m. N. E. of the city of Akmolinsk, on the Irtish at the confluence of the Om; pop. in 1867, 26,722, among whom are many European exiles. It was formerly the seat of the governor general of Western Siberia and capital of a government of its own name, which is now divided between the governments of Tobolsk, Tomsk, and Akmolinsk. It has five Greek churches, a Protestant church, a mosque, and a military school, founded in 1825 by the emperor Alexander I. for 250 pupils, who are instructed in the Kirghiz and Mongol languages. There are manufactories of cloth, and a brisk trade is carried on with the Khirghiz.