Pietro Tenerani

Pietro Tenerani, an Italian sculptor, born at Torano, near Carrara, Nov. 11, 1789, died in Rome, Dec. 14, 1869. He studied after 1814 in Rome under Canova and Thorwaldsen, and became professor and finally president of the academy of St. Luke, and in 1860 chief director of museums. He excelled in religious and classical works, some of which are regarded as superior to the later productions of Canova, and became the head of a school distinguished for a careful elaboration of details and for graceful execution. His best known works include " Christ on the Cross," in silver, in St. Stephen's at Pisa; "The Descent from the Cross," in the Torlonia chapel of St. John Lateran; the "Angel of the Last Judgment," in St. Mary's, Rome; " Flora," in possession of Queen Victoria; portrait busts of Thorwald-sen and Pius IX.; and many statues, including one of Bolivar. His last important work is the sarcophagus of Pius VIII. for St. Peter's.

Pietro Vannucci

See Perugino.


Pigault-Lebrot, a French author, whose real name was Charles Antoine ujillaume Pigault de l'Epinoy, born in Calais, April 8, 1753, died at La Celle Saint-Cloud, July 24, 1835. He was treated with great rigor by his father, an influential magistrate, who connived with the local authorities in announcing his son's death because he had married a girl of the working classes. An appeal to parliament resulted only in the confirmation of his death by that body, when he assumed the surname Lebrun. He was one of the most successful as well as most licentious writers of his day. His more important works (part of which he translated into Spanish) are comprised in his (Euvres completes (20 vols., Paris, 1822-'4). He also published Histoire de France abregee d Vusage des gens du monde (8 vols., 1823-8), extending to the death of Henry IV.

Pigeon Berry

See Poke.


Pigments, coloring matters mixed by painters with oil and other vehicles to form their paints. A variety of coloring matters can be used for pigments, differing greatly in durability or power to withstand chemical agents and the action of light and heat. As a rule pigments derived from the mineral kingdom are more durable than those which are organic. Pigments should be distinguished from the coloring matters used by the dyer and the calico printer; although several are employed in these arts, they are then dyes, and are only strictly to be considered pigments when used by the painter. The most important pigments are described in the article Paints.


See Pygmy.


See Pinerolo.


See Hickory.


Pilcomayo, a river of South America, formed by the united waters of the Cachimayo and Pi-laya, which rise in the E. slope of the Bolivian Andes, the first just S. of Chuquisaca, and the other in the extreme S. W. corner of Potosi, and unite about lat. 20° 30' S., Ion. 63° W. Thence the river, widening considerably, flows generally S. E. about 800 m. through the Chi-quitos country, and across the Gran Chaco, to its confluence with the Paraguay nearly opposite Asuncion, into which it flows by three mouths, the two outer ones 24 m. apart. The country drained by this river is mainly covered with rich forests; but it is too shallow for navigation even by flat-bottomed steamers, the average depth not being over 4 ft.