Saone-Et-Loire, a S. E. department of France, in Burgundy, bordering on Côte-d'Or, Jura, Ain, Rhône, Loire, Allier, and Nièvre; area, 3,302 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 598,344. It is crossed from N. to S. by a mountain range, and is watered W. of this ridge by the Loire, and E. by the Saône. The surface is diversified and the soil moderately fertile. Fair wines, coal, iron, manganese, leather, glass, and linen, cotton, and woollen goods are produced. The great iron works of Le Creuzot are in this department. It is divided into the arrondisse-ments of Charolles, Châlon-sur-Saône, Louhans, Mâcon, and Autun. Capital, Mâcon.


See Plant, vol. xiii., p. 582.


See Monkey, vol. xi., p. 751.

Sapan Wood

Sapan Wood (Malay, sapang), a dyewood afforded by Coesalpinia sapan, imported from the East Indies and used to dye red on cotton. The genus, named in honor of the naturalist Caesalpinus, is also found in Central and South America and the West Indies, where some species afford Brazil, peach or Nicaragua, and other dyewoods (see Brazil Wood), and another species the divi-divi pods used in tanning (see Divi-divi).


See Persia, vol. xiii., p. 322.


Saracens, originally the name of an Arab tribe, then applied to the Bedouins, afterward to the followers of Mohammed, and later to all the Moorish or Mohammedan people who invaded Europe, and against whom the crusaders fought. The classical writers do not clearly indicate the locality occupied by the tribe. Decius, it is said, let loose among them a number of lions, to punish them for their predatory habits. In regard to the origin of the name, some suppose that an Arab tribe claimed Sarah as their ancestress in order to escape the stigma of being descendants of Ha-gar; others, that the name was given to them in consequence of their roving and plundering life, from the Arabic sarak, to plunder; and others, that the word is a derivative of slia-rah, to rise, and hence signifies merely "an eastern people".

Sarah Bache

Sarah Bache, the only daughter of Benjamin Franklin, and wife of the preceding, born in Philadelphia in September, 1744, died in 1808. In 1780, when many soldiers of the American army were going barefooted and half-clad, money was collected for their relief and expended for materials, which by the continued labors of many women were soon made into the needed garments. In this work Mrs. Bache was prominently engaged. More than 2,200 women were thus employed by her at one time in sewing for the army. The marquis de Chastellux, then visiting in Philadelphia, recommended her to the ladies of Europe as a model of domestic virtues and feminine patriotism. On many occasions she displayed benevolence and patriotism by serving in the hospitals.

Sarah Helen Power (Whitman)

Sarah Helen Power (Whitman), an American poetess, born in Providence, R. I., in 1803. She married in 1828 John Winslow Whitman, a lawyer of Boston, since whose death in 1833 she has resided in Providence. She has published " Hours of Life, and other Poems" (1853); "Edgar Poe and his Critics" (1860); and with her sister, Anna Marsh Power, two fairy ballads, "Cinderella" and "The Sleeping Beauty " (revised ed., 1867-'8).