Sir William Penn

Sir William Penn, an English admiral, born in Bristol in 1621, died in Wanstead, Essex, Sept. 16, 1670. He early entered the naval service, and before he was 32 years old had become vice admiral of England and general. He was one of the commanders in the expedition that took Jamaica from the Spaniards in 1655, and on his return in the same year was elected to parliament. In 1660 he was made commissioner of the navy, governor of Kinsale, vice admiral of Munster, and a member of the council of that province. He was also knighted. Entering the naval service again in 1664, he was captain-commander under the duke of York in the victory gained over the Dutch off Lowestoft in 1665. He left the naval service in 1666, but retained his other offices till 1669.

Sir William Tite

Sir William Tite, an English architect, born in London in 1802, died in Torquay, April 20, 1873. He studied under Laing, and early superintended the restoration of the church of St. Dunstan-in-the-East. He built the famous gothic Irvingite church in London, and several tine railway stations in France and England. His most celebrated work is the royal exchange, London. He was president of the institute of British architects from 1862 to 1864, a member of parliament for Bath from 1855 till his death, and was knighted in 1869. He was a high financial authority, and presided for some time over the London and Westminster bank and the bank of Egypt.

Sir William Withy Gull

Sir William Withy Gull, an English physician, born at Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, Dec. 31, 1816. He graduated M. D. at the university of London in 1846, was Fullerian professor of physiology at the royal institution in 1847-'9, and afterward physician to Guy's hospital till about 1867. He was knighted after his successful' attendance during a severe illness of the prince of Wales in 1871, and appointed physician extraordinary. He is president of the clinical society. His publications include a lecture on paralysis and treatises on hypochondriasis and on abscess of the brain.


See Axolotl.


Sirenia, an order of placental mammals containing the dugong and manatee, formerly called herbivorous cetaceans. They are whalelike in the swimming paddles of the anterior limbs, the absence of the posterior, and in the transverse tail fin; they differ from cetaceans in having the nostrils at the anterior part of the muzzle, molar teeth with flat crowns adapted for a vegetable diet, a head not disproportionately large, a tolerably distinct neck, more fleshy and bristly lips, and more hairy body.


See Dog Star.


See Lilac, and Philadelphus.

Sirocco, Or Scirocco

Sirocco, Or Scirocco, a S. E. wind of a suffocating and parching heat, which at certain intervals, especially in spring and autumn, blows with great violence in the islands of the Mediterranean and on the S. coasts of Italy, for 36 or 48 hours together, and sometimes even for a week or more, and which exerts a most pernicious influence on animal and vegetable life. It is regarded as similar in character to the simoom, though of longer duration, and tempered while passing over the Mediterranean. It is hottest in Malta and Sicily, but of short continuance. In the Ionian isles it blows for a longer period, but usually not so fiercely. The inhabitants of these isles speak of the black and the ordinary sirocco. It produces very little change either in the thermometer or the barometer, but causes a sensation of terrible heat and suffocation, great prostration, and copious perspiration.