Vitez Mihaly Csokonai

Vitez Mihaly Csokonai, a Hungarian poet, born at Debreczin, Nov. 17, 1773, died Jan. 28, 1805. He was educated at the college of his native town, and appointed professor of classical literature there in 1795, but was soon expelled from this situation on account of his irregular habits. He then commenced the study of the law, which he soon gave up; and during the rest of his life he had no regular employment. His works, principally love poems and comic pieces, have been published in numerous editions.


Vitouia, a town of Spain, capital of the Basque province of Alava, 29 m. S. S. E. of Bilbao; pop. about 19,000. The older parts are poorly built and dilapidated, but the new town has fine streets and squares. It has manufactures of stained paper, hats, brushes, combs, carriages, leather, mirrors, and articles in iron and copper. Its trade has declined since the removal of the custom house to the frontier. It probably existed under the Romans, and received its present name from Sancho the Wise of Navarre in commemoration of a victory over the Moors about 1180. On June 21, 1813, Wellington defeated here the French under Joseph Bonaparte and Jourdan, capturing 150 guns and $5,000,000 worth of plunder, the booty of the five years' occupation of the peninsula.


Vlaardingen, a town of the Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, on the left bank of the New Maas, 6 m. W. of Rotterdam; pop. about 10,000. It has a Reformed and a Catholic church, a good harbor, and nearly 100 registered vessels engaged in the herring fishery. A day of prayer is held on the eve of their annual departure.

Vladimir Ivanovitdi Dahl

Vladimir Ivanovitdi Dahl, popularly known under his nom de plume Kosak Luganski, a Russian author, born in St. Petersburg about 1802, died in 1872. He was educated in the naval academy, and served in 1819 on board the Black sea fleet. He subsequently studied medicine at Dorpat, and was attached as physician to the army in the Polish campaign of 1831, and in 1839 to that under Perovski operating against Khiva. He held various offices, and travelled extensively through the empire.

He was a diligent collector of Russian folk lore, and was in possession of more than 4,000 popular tales and fables, besides a vast number of proverbs. He published the latter in a separate work, and communicated the former to other scholars. Many of the tales are included in AfanasiefFs collection. His principal work is the "Dictionary of the Living Russian Tongue" in six large volumes, finished in 1866, which is indispensable for the study of popular Russian literature.

Vladimir The Great

See Russia.

Vliesslgen, Or Vlissingen

See Flushing.


See Edessa, II.

Volatile Oils

See Essential Oils.


Volsci, an ancient people of central Italy, according to their language akin to the Umbri&ns. They inhabited the southern part of Latium, extending E. beyond the Liris- (Garigliano) and W. to the Tyrrhenian sea, on the shore of which their capital, Antium, formed a considerable seaport (now Porto d'Anzo). They were engaged in continual hostilities with Rome, until they were subdued in 338 by L. Furius CamiUos, when they disappeared.