A province of the kingdom of Italy, forming the S. portion of the island of Sardinia, bounded N. by Sassari and on all other sides by the sea; area, 5,224 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 392,981. It comprises the four districts of Cagliari, Iglesias, Lanusei, and Oristano. The soil is throughout mountainous, the highest points being Monte d'Oleastra, in the district of Lanusei, and Monte Arcuento, in the district of Iglesias. It is watered by the Tirso, Samassi, Flumendosa, and several smaller streams. All kinds of grain are cultivated, and the breeding of cattle and cultivation of forests are also of considerable importance. The mines produce iron and silver ore, lead, and antimony. On the coast salt is produced in large quantities'. II. The capital of the province (anc. Caralis), situated at the bottom of a bay of the same name, on the S. coast, in lat. 39° 13' K, Ion. 9° 7' E.; pop. about 28,000. It is built on the slope of a steep hill which rises from the coast, and it presents an imposing appearance from the sea.
The highest part contains the principal public buildings: the castle, with the viceregal palace; the cathedral, built during the 14th century; and the university, with the departments of theology, law, medicine, philosophy, and belles-lettres. Cagliari has also a public library, a museum of natural history and antiquities, several public seminaries, a theatre, a mint, many churches, and upward of 20 convents. It is the see of an archbishop, and the principal port of the island. Its more important exports are corn, oil, wine, tobacco, firearms, and soap. It was founded by the Carthaginians, and after the Roman conquest was a naval station and residence of the praetor. Remains of the ancient city are still to be seen. A submarine telegraph communicating with Bona in Algeria, and another with Malta, have been in operation since 1857. There are extensive salt works on the shores of the bay.