Ceiram Ceram, Siraiig, or Zeram, one of the Molucca islands, in the Malay archipelago, lying X. of Amboyna, between Booroo on the west and Papua on the east; lat. 2° 47' to 3° 50' S.; lon. 127° 51' to 130° 56' E.; area estimated at 0,500 sq. m.; pop. at 67,000. Its topography is imperfectly known, but the general character of the surface is hilly, several mountain ranges, from 5,000 to 0,000 ft. high, traversing the island, and giving rise to a number of streams which empty principally off the S. coast. The loftiest peak is that of Noosaheli, 7,000 ft. above the sea. The climate is salubrious, vegetation is luxuriant, and the nutmeg and clove were produced spontaneously until extirpated by the Dutch about 1657. The sago palm here reaches the height of 100 ft., and a single tree sometimes yields 1,200 lbs. of starch. Many varieties of forest trees are found, furnishing fine woods for cabinet work, known in commerce as Amboyna wood, but none suitable for ship building. The coasts are peopled by a hardy, enterprising Malay race, who subsist chiefly by fishing, and find a market for the produce of their toil at Singapore and the Sim-da islands; they also have an extensive trade with China in tripang.

Their vessels, called praus or kora-kora, are manned by from 30 to 60 rowers each. Most of these people are Mohammedans, but Christian missionaries have made many converts among them. The Alfu-ros are the dominant tribe of the interior. They are described as an honest and in most respects peaceable race of idolaters, among whom Christianity has made some progress. A little maize, for domestic consumption or exchange for dress, firearms, and fermented liquors, is cultivated, chiefly by women; while the men are engaged in hunting. The Alfuros have prominent features, large eyes, and long frizzled hair; they are brave, faithful, obedient, and make good soldiers. In the mountains in the central part there is now but one populous village; in the east and extreme west there are a few others; but with these exceptions the inhabitants are generally on the coast. On the S. W. coast the Dutch have improved the condition of the natives by establishing schools in every village, introducing vaccination, and encouraging settlement by Europeans. New cacao and coffee plantations, affording work at fair wages, have elevated the condition of the natives. The Dutch have the sovereignty of the island, and have established several forts on it.

On the N. E. coast are the bay and village of Waroo, where good anchorage, water, and provisions may be had. Off the coast of Ceram lies a small group of islands called Ceram Laut.