Dove. I. Heinrich Wilhelm, a German physicist, born in Liegnitz, Prussian Silesia, Oct. 6, 1803. He was educated at Liegnitz, Breslau, and Berlin, in 1826 became a teacher and subsequently a professor extraordinary in the university of Konigsberg, and in 1829 was invited to a similar chair in Berlin. In 1837 he was admitted to the academy of sciences, and in 1845 he became full professor of physics. He has investigated the laws which regulate atmospheric phenomena, and evolved them with clearness and precision. His reports and isothermal maps afforded the first representation of the isothermal lines of the whole globe for every month of the year, besides much kindred information, whose importance can scarcely be overestimated. He was the first to announce the presence of a secondary electric current in a metallic wire, at the moment that the circuit of the principal current is completed. Of his works, many of which have appeared in the transactions of the Berlin academy of sciences, and in Poggendorf's Annalen, the principal are: Ueber Mass und Messen; Mete-orologische Untersuchungen; Ueber die nicht-periodischen Aenderungen der Temperatvrver-theilung avf der Oberflache der Erde; Untersuchungen im Gebiete der Inductionselektrici-tat; Temperaturtafeln; Monatsisothermen; and Das Gesetz der Sturme, which has been translated into French and English. In a more popular style he has written several treatises on meteorological and electrical phenomena, which have found many readers.

In the capacity of director of the Prussian observatories he publishes each year the results of their labors. Among his most recent writings are Kli-matologische Beitrage (Berlin, 1857 et seq.), Mo-nats- und Jahresisothermen in der Polarpro-jection (1864), Klimatologie von Norddeutsch-land (1868-71), and papers on electricity, the movement of water, etc. II. Richard Wilhelm, a German jurist, son of the preceding, born in Berlin, Feb. 27, 1833. On graduating at the university of Berlin in 1854 he delivered a thesis on ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Germany and France which attracted much attention. He served one year in the Prussian army, and in 1859 became a Privatdocent at Berlin, his lectures meeting with remarkable success. In 1860 he founded the Zeitschrift far Kirchen-recht, which he at first edited alone. In 1862 he was made extraordinary professor of ecclesiastical and German law at Tubingen, and in 1863 full professor. In 1865 he accepted a similar position at Kiel, and in 1868 at Gottin-gen. In 1869, when he was appointed by the king a member of the national synod, he earnestly opposed the efforts of the clerical delegates of the extreme Lutheran party to introduce, even in matters connected with the church, obstacles to the union of Germany; and the same desire for unification inspired his action in more purely political contests, in which he engaged with much ability. - His services in this cause led to his election in 1871 to the first German Reichstag. He has published several essays in the Zeitschrift far Kirchen-recht, and he had charge of the revision of Richter's text book of ecclesiastical law. - His younger brother Alfred edited the Grenzboten in 1869-'70, and since January, 1871, has been the editor of a similar politico-literary journal entitled Im neuen Reich (Leipsic).