Grimm ,.I. Jakob Ludwig, a German philologist, born in Hanau, Jan. 4, 1785, died in Berlin, Sept. 20, 1863. He studied law in the university of Marburg under Savigny, whom in 1805 he accompanied to Paris. In 1806 he returned to Hesse, was appointed secretary of war, and devoted his leisure to the literature of the middle ages. He participated in the congress of Vienna (1814-'15), and was sent to Paris by the Prussian government to obtain manuscripts carried thither by Napoleon. He was second librarian at Cassel from 1816 to 1830, when he became professor and librarian at Gottingen, and for seven years lectured on the antiquities of the German language, literature, and law. In 1837 he was one of the seven professors who signed the protest against the abolition of the constitution by the king of Hanover, for which he with most of the signers was deprived of his office and banished. He published a pamphlet on the subject entitled Jakob Grimm uber seine Entlas-sung (Basel, 1838). In 1841 he was called to Berlin as member of the academy of sciences and as professor.

He presided over the assemblies of German philologists held in Frankfort in 1846 and in Lubeck in 1847, was a member of the Frankfort parliament of 1848, and participated in the gathering at Gotha in 1849, acting with the moderate liberal party. His first publication was Ueber den altdeutschen Meistergesang (Gottingen, 1811). It was followed by his Deutsche Grammatik (4 vols., 1819 - '37), containing a history of the grammatical forms of all the Germanic dialects in the different eras of the language. His Deutsche Rechtsalterthumer (1828; new ed., 1854) recounts the poetical and fantastic customs which flourished among the Germans in the middle ages; and his Deutsche Mythologie (1835; 2d ed., 1843) is a complete discussion of the old gods of the North. His Geschichteder deutschen Sprache (2 vols., Leipsic, 1848; 2d ed., 1853) traces the ethnological affinities of the Germanic nations by comparative philology. Among his numerous other works are a collection of German proverbs, Weisthumer (4 vols., Gottingen, 1840-63), and editions of various mediaeval productions.

He also published, in connection with his brother Wilhelm Karl, the German Kinder- und Hausmarchen (Berlin, 1812; often republished, and translated into English and French), one of the most popular collections of juvenile stories; Altdeutsche Walder (3 vols., Cassel, 1813-'16); Die Liedcr der Alien Edda (Berlin, 1815); Deutsche Sagen (2 vols., Berlin, 1816-18); and Irische Elfen-marchen (Leipsic, 1826), founded on Croker's "Fairy Legends." In 1852 he and his brother commenced the publication of the Deutsches Worterbuch, on a plan more elaborate and extensive than that of any dictionary of any modern language. It was intended to include every word employed in German literature from Luther to Goethe. He lived to complete three volumes and a part of the fourth, embracing but a small part of the alphabet. The completion of the work, his brother having died before him, was intrusted to Moritz Heyne, Rudolf Hildebrand, and Karl Weigand; and it is said that the brothers Grimm left sufficient materials to carry out the original plan in all its essential features.

The first part of vol. iv., reaching to the word Garten, was published in Leipsic at the beginning of 1874. The work was completed nearly to the letter L, and it is expected that the whole will be ready about 1890. Since his death three volumes of his minor writings (Kleinere Schriften), including an autobiography, have been published. II. Wilhelm Karl, a German philologist, brother of the preceding, born in Hanau, Feb. 24, 1786, died in Berlin, Dec. 16, 1859. He was educated at Cassel and Marburg, was appointed in 1814 secretary of the library of Cassel, and in 1830 assistant librarian at Gottingen, where he became professor in 1835. He was deprived of this office in 1837, and accompanied his brother to Cassel and Berlin. He devoted himself especially to German mediaeval poetry, and, besides the works which were the joint productions of the two brothers, wrote treatises Ueber die deutschen Runen (Gottingen, 1821) and Ueber die dentschen Fingernamen (Berlin, 1848); translated the Altdanische Hel-denlieder, Balladen und Marchen (Heidelberg, 1811); and edited the Grave Ruodolf (Gottingen, 1828), Die deutsche Heldensage (1829), Der Freidank (1834), Dergrosse Rosengarten (1834), Das Rolandslied (1838), Wernhers vom Nied-herrhein Veronica (1839), Konrads von Wurz-burg Goldene Schmiede (Berlin, 1840), Athis und Prophilias (1846), Exhortatio ad Plebem Christianam (1848), and Altdeutsche Gesprache (1851), for all of which he furnished introductions and disquisitions of great value.

III. Lud-wig Emil, a German painter and engraver, brother of the preceding, born in Hanau in 1790, died in Cassel, April 4, 1863. He studied under Karl Hess at Munich, served in the campaign of 1813, and in 1817 went to Italy. In 1832 he became professor in the academy of painting at Cassel. He made more than 130 engravings, most of them his own compositions. Of his paintings, a " Madonna " and numerous portraits are most admired. IV. Hermann Friedrich, son of Wilhelm Karl, born in Cassel, Jan. 6, 1828. He studied at Berlin and Bonn, and has since 1849 resided in the former city. Among ! his works are the drama Arminius (1851), the tragedy Demetrius (1854), the poem Travm und Erwachen (1854), Novellen (1856; 2d ed., 1862), Essays (1859), Leben Michel Angelo's (2 vols., 1860-'63; 3d ed., 1868; English transla-tion by F. E. Bunnett, 2 vols., 1865), Neue Essays (1865), mainly devoted to the writings of Emerson, and the novel Unuberwindliche Mach-te (3 vols., 1867). He has also edited Ueber Kanstler vnd Kunstwerkc (3 vols., 1865-'7).