Henry Wager Halleck, an American soldier, born at Waterville, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1815, died in Louisville, Ky., Jan. 9, 1872. He studied for a time at Union college, and entered the military academy at West Point, where he graduated in 1839, after which he served for a year as assistant professor of engineering, and until 1845 as assistant engineer upon the fortifications in the harbor of New York. In that year he was sent by government to study the principal military establishments in Europe. In 1840 he was ordered to California, where he served in various military and civil capacities, and was also director general of the New Almaden quicksilver mines. He resigned his commission in August, 1854, and entered upon the practice of law in San Francisco, and was also president of a railroad. On the outbreak of the civil war he was appointed a major general in the United States army, and was soon after placed in command of the military department of the West, his headquarters being at St. Louis. He directed the military operations in the west, and took the command in the field during the Corinth campaign in the spring and early summer of 1862. In July, 1862, he was called to Washington and appointed general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States, a position which he held till March 12, 1804. Grant being then made lieutenant general, Halleck received the appointment of chief of staff to the army, which he held till April, 1805, when he was placed in command of the military division of the James, his headquarters being at Richmond. In the following August he was transferred to the division of the Pacific, and in March, 1869, to that of the South, his headquarters being at Louisville. He published several works upon military and scientific topics, the principal of which are: "Bitumen, its Varieties, Properties, and Uses" (1841); "Elements of Military Art and Science" (1846; 2d ed., with critical notes on the Mexican and Crimean wars, 1858); "The Mining Laws of Spain and Mexico" (1859); a translation, with an introduction, of "De Fooz on the Law of Mines" (1800); "International Law, or the Rules regulating the Intercourse of States in Peace and War" (1861); a translation, with notes, of Jomini's "Life of Napoleon" (1804); and "A Treatise on International Law and the Laws of War, prepared for the Use of Schools and Colleges" (1800).