James IV.king of Scotland, son of the preceding and of Margaret of Denmark, born March 17, 1472, slain at the battle of Flodden, Sept. 9,1513. He was crowned at Scone, June 26, 1488. His government was one of the most vigorous that Scotland ever knew. Unlike his predecessors, he determined to rule by the aid of the nobility, and not to seek their humiliation. Attempts at insurrection were put down. Aided by parliament, the king carried many measures for the improvement of the country, concerning trade and manufactures. "When he found his power firmly established he withdrew his favor from the men who had acted with him against his father. Peace was made with England. The encroachments of Rome were restrained. Justice was regularly administered in the lowlands; and the king determined that the highlands should be made subject to law. He made several journeys thither and to the isles, successfully asserting the royal authority. The lord of the isles endeavored to resist, but was stripped of power and possessions.

When Perkin Warbeck appeared, claiming to be the second son of Edward IV. of England, James supported him, and he is believed to have been an original party to the plot that brought him upon the stage. "Warbeck visited Scotland in 1495, and was royally received.' James gave him for a wife a daughter of the earl of Huntly, a near relative of his own. He invaded England, but this was injurious to "Warbeck's plans, because of the hatred felt by the English for the Scotch. The latter returned home, but the war continued. Henry VII. renewed his offer to give the hand of his daughter Margaret to James, and in 1497 Warbeck left Scotland, when a seven years' truce was agreed upon. James now proceeded to complete his plans for the improvement of Scotland. Commerce and a navy received much of his attention, and prospered. He again visited the north, and enforced the law in the highlands. Learning was favored by him, and literature flourished. In deference to the nobility, he married the princess Margaret of England, Aug. 8, 1503. The relations between France and Scotland became very close, which offended Henry VII. Printing was introduced into Scotland in 1507, by "Walter Chapman, one of the king's servants.

After the accession of Henry VIII. to the English throne troubles began, which ended in war in 1513, when James invaded England, and was defeated by the earl of Surrey at Flodden. The loss of the battle was due to the conduct of the king, who, from exaggerated notions of chivalry, gave up great advantages of position, for which he paid with his life. He showed eminent valor, but no generalship.