Logan, the assumed name of the Indian chief Tah-gah-jute, born about 1725, killed near Lake Erie in the summer of 1780. He was the son of Shikellamy, a chief of the Cayugas, who resided on the shores of the Susquehanna; and he was called Logan after James Logan, the secretary of Pennsylvania. In his early manhood he was known throughout the frontier of Virginia and Pennsylvania for his tine presence, his engaging qualities, and his friendship for the whites. About 1770 he removed to the banks of the Ohio, where he gave way in a measure to intemperance. In the spring of 1774 his family were massacred, it was alleged, by a party of whites led by Capt. Michael Cresap, under the pretext of retaliation for Indian murders; but it is exceedingly doubtful whether Cresap had any share in the transaction. Logan at once instigated a war against the scattered settlers of the far west, and for several months fearful barbarities were perpetrated upon men, women, and children. He himself took 30 scalps in the course of the war, which terminated after a severe defeat of the Indians at the mouth of the Great Kanawha. He disdained to appear among the chiefs who subsequently sued for peace, but sent to Lord Dunmore, the governor of Virginia, the following speech explaining his conduct, which was first published in Jefferson's "Notes on Virginia": "I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not.
During the course of the last long and bloody war Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, Logan is the friend of the white men. I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not even sparing my women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it; I have killed many; I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear; Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan ? Not one." His habits of intemperance grew upon him after this, and while frenzied with liquor he felled his wife by a sudden blow. Thinking that he had killed her, he fled, and while traversing the wilderness between Detroit and Sandusky was overtaken by a party of Indians. Supposing his avengers at hand, he prepared to attack them, and was killed by his relative Tod-hah-dohs in self-defence.
I. James, an American author, born at Lurgan, Ireland, Oct. 20, 1674, died at Stenton, near Philadelphia, Oct. 31, 1751. He was a member of the society of Friends, acquired by his own efforts a good knowledge of science and languages, and was established in trade at Bristol when in 1699 he accepted William Penn's invitation to accompany him to America as secretary. In 1701, upon the return of Penn to England, he was appointed provincial secretary, and he was subsequently commissioner of property, chief justice, and president of the council, and acted as governor for two years after the demise of Gov. Gordon in 1736. His chief work, Experimenta et Me-letemata de Plantarum Generatione (Leyden, 1739; London, translated from the Latin by Dr. Fothergill, 1747), an expansion of a paper on the growth of maize, was published in the "Philosophical Transactions" for 1735. He was the author of an English translation of Cicero's De Senectute, published in 1744 by Benjamin Franklin, which was the first original translation of a classical author printed in America. He gave his library, numbering about 2,000 volumes, to the city of Philadel-hia, and it is deposited in a separate department of the Philadelphia library under the name of the Loganian library.
II. George, an American statesman, grandson of the preceding, born at Stenton, Sept. 9,1753, died there, April 9, 1821. He was educated in England, studied medicine and took the degree of M. D. in Edinburgh, and returned in 1779 to America, where he was one of the first to prosecute farming in a scientific manner. He served several terms in the Pennsylvania legislature. At the outbreak of the French revolution he joined Jefferson and the republican party in opposition to the federalists. In 1798 he went to France to prevent war with the United States, and was well received; but having taken letters of introduction from Jefferson instead of passports from the state department, he was denounced by the federalists on his return as the treasonable envoy of a faction who had undertaken to institute a correspondence with a foreign and hostile power. He was coldly received by Washington and President Adams, and in the latter part of 1798 an act, known as the "Logan act," was passed by congress, making it a high misdemeanor for a private citizen to interfere in a controversy between the United States and a foreign country.
He was a member of the United States senate from 1801 to 1807; and in 1810 he went to England in the hope of preserving peace.