Macao, a Portuguese dependency and city on the coast of China, at the mouth of the Canton river, in lat. 22° 10' 30" N, Ion. 113° 32' E.; area, 12 sq. m.; pop. about 100,000, of whom 90,000 are Chinese, and the remainder a mixed multitude of nearly all nations. The city occupies a peninsula on the S. E. side of the island of Heang-shang. A low narrow isthmus about 1/4 m. wide joins this peninsula to the main island. A barrier wall formerly extended across the isthmus, and the Chinese maintained a guard there to prevent foreigners from passing. These have been removed, and no restrictions now exist. The city is built chiefly on the acclivity of two hills around a large semicircular bay. Its whitewashed houses make a pretty appearance from the roadstead, but the streets are narrow, and the Chinese population live in miserable and filthy dwellings. The best part of the place consists of a long line of well built houses on the beach, in front of which is a promenade called the Praya Grande. There are 12 Portuguese churches and several convents. The chief public buildings are the senate house, the governor's palace, and the English factory. On the hills around the city are forts which have an imposing appearance, but are badly armed with worn-out cannon.

The principal Portuguese officials are the governor, the judge, and the bishop. There is a college here for the education of Catholic priests, a grammar school in which Portuguese is taught, an English hospital, and several other benevolent institutions. The harbor of Macao has not sufficient depth of water for large vessels, which anchor in the roads E. S. E. of the city and about 5 m. distant. Little shipping is owned in the place, and the trade is carried on almost wholly by Chinese and British merchants. The climate is healthy and temperate, and the city is a favorite resort for invalids from India. - Macao was granted to the Portuguese in 1585 by the Chinese emperor, in reward for their services in repelling the incursions of a Japanese pirate. It had, however, been the seat of a factory before that period, and between 1553 and 1561 was the residence of the poet Camoens, who held a small judicial office there, and wrote a part of the "Lusiad" in a grotto in a garden behind the city. Macao was for a long period the seat of a great trade, not only with China, but with Japan, the Philippine islands, and In-do-China; but its commerce is much diminished.

In 1844 the Portuguese authorities succeeded in securing from the Chinese government privileges similar to those given to the English in China. In 1845 the port was declared open to foreigners; but the Chinese were subjected to a tariff until 1849, when the port was made free to all traders, and a tax on native houses was laid as a measure of compensation, which drove away many Chinese. The opening of the Yang-tse and the northern ports also affected its trade materially. The principal exports are tea, rice, aniseed, and ca-nella; imports, opium, cotton, and silk. Most of the revenue is derived from licensing gambling houses and other places of ill repute. For several years the principal business of Macao was the shipment of coolies; in 1870, 10,813 were shipped to Peru and 5,705 to Cuba. The Chinese government long allowed this trade to be carried on without interference, but at length took measures to prevent it, and in 1874 it was abolished by the Portuguese authorities.

Macao.

Macao.