I. A Government Of Russia

A Government Of Russia, lying partly in Europe and partly in Asia, though officially wholly included in Europe, and bordering on Vologda, Tobolsk, Orenburg, Ufa, and Viatka; extreme length 500 m., breadth 450 m.; area, 128,216 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 2,173,501. The Ural mountains traverse it N. and S., dividing the government into two unequal parts, that in Europe being the larger. Deneshkin Kamen, the loftiest summit, is 5,360 ft. above the sea; and the principal pass across the Ural leads by Kungur, between Perm and Tobolsk. From the principal chain the surface descends in a series of terraces, and a great part of it is mountainous. The European portion belongs principally to the basin of the Caspian, and the Asiatic to that of the Arctic ocean. The Kama, an affluent of the Volga, enters the government from the northwest, and leaves it at the southwest, receiving many tributaries, the most important of which are the Vishera, Kosva, and Tschusovaya. The E. part has several lakes, and is drained by numerous tributaries of the Obi, the largest of which are the Sosva, Losva, Tura, Pyshma, Iset, and Miyas. The climate of the elevated regions and of the north is cold and bleak. Gold, silver, platinum, iron, copper, lead, diamonds, and other precious stones, loadstone, salt, and marble are found.

The S. W. part is generally fertile, but elsewhere the soil is better suited for pasture than agriculture, and much of it is uncultivated. Rye, barley, oats, potatoes, flax, and different vegetables are grown. Oak, elm, cedar, pine, and larch are the chief trees. The forests abound in large and small game; the rivers are filled with fish, including sturgeon and salmon, and many of the inhabitants find employment in hunting, fishing, and cutting wood for use at the mines. The government mines are extensively worked. Excepting such industries as are connected with mining, there are few manufactures; but some cloth, leather, soap, glass, and candles are made. About three fourths of the inhabitants are Russians, and the remainder are composed of various Finnic and Tartar tribes. By far the greater part belong to the Greek church, but there are some of other Christian sects, and about 4 per cent, are Mohammedans.

II. A City

A City, capital of the government, on the left bank "of the Kama, in lat. 58° 1' K, Ion. 56° 16' E., 700 m. E. ,K E. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 22,712. The houses are chiefly constructed of wood. It is the seat of a Greek bishop, and there are nine churches, several public buildings, a convent, hospitals, a gymnasium, a theological seminary, extensive iron founde-ries, and copper refineries.