Foxes, a tribe of North American Indians of the Algonquin family, noted in history as turbulent, daring, and warlike. They were of two stocks, one calling themselves Outagamies or Foxes, whence our English name; the other Musquakink or men of red clay, the name now used by the tribe. They lived in early times with the kindred Sacs east of Detroit, and as some say near the St. Lawrence, so that we may conjecture them to be the Outagwami of the early Jesuit narratives, who resided near Lake St. John. They were driven west, and settled at Saginaw, a name derived from the Sacs. Thence they were driven by the Iroquois to Green bay. About 1658 they were forced from this by the Iroquois and Winnebagoes, and finally took post on Fox river. Here they were visited by the trader Perrot and the missionary Allouez in 1667. They numbered probably 500 warriors, cultivated Indian corn, and were expert hunters, but had no canoes. Still turbulent, they made war on the Sioux, and held their own against all their enemies, although suffering severe losses. The missionaries failed to make any great impression on them. At the summons of I)e la Barre in 1684 they sent warriors who joined Durantaye on Lake Erie for the campaign against the Five Nations. They also took part in Denonville's more serious campaign.

They soon, however, showed hostility to the French, and opened intercourse with the Five Nations, even proposing to remove to their territory. Won, as French writers charge, by English promises, the Foxes under Pemoussa, with the Maskoutens and Kickapoos, attacked Detroit in 1712. Du Buis-son, the French commander, called out the allies of France, and the Foxes were besieged in their fort, where they made a desperate defence; but they finally fled, were pursued, and almost all destroyed at Presque Isle on Lake St. Clair. The rest of the tribe molested every road, and in 1716 Louvigny was sent against them. He invested their fort at Butte des Morts on Fox river, and compelled them to sue for peace. They continued hostilities against the French and their allies for years, making the road to Louisiana almost impassa-able. The French sent another expedition against them under De Ligney in 1728, which ravaged their country, and again in 1734. Finally, in 1746, with the aid of the Menomo-nees and Chippewas, they drove the Foxes from their river to the Wisconsin. Some Foxes however joined the French in their last struggle for Canada, and served under Montcalm at Fort William Henry. At the close of the war in 1763 they were in a large village of logs and bark on the Wisconsin, with fields of corn and vegetables.

Although in 1736 they were reported as reduced to 100 warriors, they are at this time said to have increased to 320. The Foxes took no part in Pontiac's war, but befriended the whites. In 1766 they settled at Prairie du Chien, so named •from one of their chiefs, called the Dog. When the American revolution began, they took up arms on the side of the English, and fought under De Langlade. English influence prevailed even after the end of the Avar. The Foxes did not indeed take part in the Miami war, though some may have been involved with the Sacs who did, five chiefs claiming to act for the Foxes and Sacs. By the treaty of Nov. 3, 1804, for $2,234 50 and an annuity of 81,000. the Foxes and Sacs ceded to the United States immense tracts of land on the Missouri, Jeffreon, and Wisconsin rivers, and on the Illinois and its branch the Fox. They were at this time chiefly west of the Mississippi, in a single village, 140 leagues above St. Louis, and numbered 1,200. When the second war with England began, 300 of the Foxes and their kindred the Sacs went to Maiden to join the British forces, and took part in the attack on Sandusky. Keokuk with the friendly Sacs and Foxes retired to St. Louis. In September, 1815, they made peace, agreed to give up prisoners, etc., but one band of Sacs long continued to be called the British band.

In 1822 they were on the Mississippi near Fort Armstrong, in three villages, some having moved to the Iowa and returned. - They were expert hunters and canoemen, and cultivated 300 acres of land, raising corn, beans, pumpkins, and melons; many were employed in the lead mines, digging 400,000 pounds in a season. They, with the Sacs, ceded lands by the treaty of Aug. 4, 1824, and July 15, 1830, but were to some extent involved in the Black Hawk war in 1831, begun by that chief of the British band of Sacs who wished to retain Rock Island in Illinois. At the close of this war the two tribes made a treaty at Fort Armstrong with Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds, ceding lands for an annuity of $20,000 for 20 years. By a subsequent treaty at Rock Island they ceded a part reserved in the last, embracing 256,000 acres, for $192,000. They then centred on the Des Moines in an irregular square tract about 140 miles each way. The Foxes at this time numbered 2,446, cultivating no more than be-fore, though hunting less. Turbulent as ever, they were constantly at war with neighboring tribes.

Government removed them again by the treaty of 1842, and in 1849 they were chiefly on the Osage. Since then, in spite of government efforts to civilize and improve them, they have declined in numbers very rapidly, rejecting with steady pertinacity missionaries and schools. In 1872 the Sacs and Foxes who had ceded their lands in Kansas to the United States in 1859 and 1868 numbered only 463, about one half Foxes. They occupied a reservation of 483,840 acres, between the North fork of the Canadian and the Red fork of the Arkansas. The Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri, the band who remained faithful during the Black Hawk war, are reduced to 88, occupying a reservation of 16,000 acres in S. E. Nebraska and X. E. Kansas. This band has nearly twice as much land under cultivation as the former, though those of the Mississippi have more live stock. The latter have annuities amounting to $60,000; those of the Missouri to $10,506. In 1857 a party of 317 Sacs and Foxes, tired of being constantly moved from reservation to reservation, bought lands in Tama, Iowa, unaided by government, for they received no annuities.

Here they set to work, and have $10,440 invested in stock, and have raised $2,715 worth of produce in a year, while by hiring out as farm laborers they are rapidly becoming industrious and self-sustaining. The farmers, who at first laughed at the idea of employing them, now find them good workers.