Stove, in domestic economy, a contrivance, or apparatus, in which fires are made, with the view of conveying heat throughout houses, churches, or other buildings.

One of the most ingenious plans designed in this department, is the Pennsylvania Fire-place, which we have described in vol.ii. pp.289 -92. Notwithstanding its acknowledged utility, the mechanism of Dr. Franklin's apparatus has occasionally been found too complex to be comprehended by ordinary workmen: hence, a Mr. Sharp procured a patent, several years since, for certain improvements, which are calculated to obviate such inconveniencies. Thus, by adding a funnel to the top, these fire-places can be adapted to any chimnies; and, if the funnel be lengthened, it may be accommodated to libraries, ball-rooms, or other buildings, which have not the advantage of a chimney. Mr. S.'s stove-grates are provided with a hollow base ; in consequence of which, he is enabled to apply them, without any additional brick-work, more effectually to the purpose of heating rooms, than is practicable with those on Franklin's construction : at the same time, by his alterations in the air-box (see vol. ii. p. 290), a larger portion of air is introduced. Our limits permit us only to add, that Mr. Smart's stove-grates may be accommodated very building, whether public or private : and we refer the reader to his "Account of the Air-Stoire-Vraies, " etc. 8vo.

In June, 1796, a patent was granted to Mr. William Whit-tington, for his invention of a Portable Baking Stove. The patentee asserts, that his contrivance is calculated for baking all kinds of bread, particularly that prepared of oats, with a cheapness and facility not hitherto experienced. It may be manufactured from any metal, or even from clay, of any size or shape; and either with or without an oven: the door for supplying fuel, together with the pipe or flue for carrying off the smoke, may be fixed in any part of the stove. Besides, this machine may be used in any situation, whether on land or at sea; being easily portable, and requiring only one-fifth part of the fuel consumed in the common way; as it may be easily heated with coke, coals, wood, charcoal, or any other substance. For a more diffuse account of such contrivance, the reader will consult the 12th vol. of the Repertory of Arts, etc. where it is illustrated with an engraving.

A patent was likewise granted to Mr. Edward Walker, for a portable Stove or Kitchen; to facilitate the processes of cooking, or dressing provisions. The whole is manufactured of either cast or wrought iron ; having a fire-place in its centre, which is inclosed by a : beneath is an ash-hole; and, on each side, there is a closet, one of which may be employed for baking ; the other will contain two spits, with racks, etc. complete; the top may be used as a broiling-plate, heated by the same fire; while the smoke is carried off through an iron funnel, having a smoke-jack for the purpose of turning the spits. A more complete idea of this stove may be obtained from the 15th vol. of the Repertory, etc. where the specification is illustrated with an engraving. - See also the articles FirE-Place, Furnace, GratEs, and Kitchen.

Stoves, in Horticulture, are buildings erected for the purpose of preserving tender plants, which would otherwise perish, from the moisture and coldness of our climate.

These erections are usually divided into two classes, namely, bark and dry-stoves, according to the plan on which they are established. In the former case, a pit is dug to the depth of three or four feet, that generally extends over the whole length of the hot-house, and is filled with fresh tanners' bark, in which the pots, containing the plants, are plunged. - See Hotbed.

Dry-stoves are built of bricks, in the form of flues, which are conveyed either beneath the pavement, or attached to the back wall of the house; one being constructed above another, and returned six or eight times throughout the whole length of the building. In such stoves, it is necessary to arrange the pots on shelves, rising progressively. Their dimensions ought to be adapted to the number of plants to be preserved; the floor being elevated to a greater or smaller height above the surface of the ground, according to the natural humidity or dryness of the soil. It will be necessary to make paths about two feet wide in the front, for the convenience of walking. The furnace may be placed either in the middle, or at one end of the building ; but it should, in every case, be adapted to the nature of the fuel to be employed. The best for this purpose is turf; because it burns more uniformly, and slowly, than any other combustible substance, and consequently requires less attendance.

Such is the manner in which these kinds of stoves are generally constructed ; but Dr. Anderson has lately contrived another apparatus, upon a new plan, and accommodated to his Patent Hot~ houses (see vol. ii. pp. 495-6): as, however, a mere description of his peculiar stove would convey an imperfect idea of the invention, we are obliged to refer the curious reader, as well as the lover of horticulture, to the first volume of the new series of Dr. A.'s Recreations in Agriculture, etc. where the principle is fully developed, and illustrated with several cuts.

Stove. - An useful contrivance of this nature, calculated for Laundries, is manufactured by Messrs. Jackson and Moser, of Dean-street, Soho; Whose patent is now expired. Their stoves differ little from those generally employed for warming apartments, except that the smoke is conveyed into a vent by one pipe; over which a retort is fixed. At the bottom, on both sides, there is a bar, on which irons may be heated ; so that, when the stove is raised on brick-work, and becomes thoroughly hot, it communicates heat to the room, and thus contributes to dry the linen ; while a considerable savins is obtained in the article of Fuel.