Darlington, a town in the south of the county of Durham, on a slight elevation overlooking the Skerne near its junction with the Tees, 23 miles S. of Durham, and 45 NNW. of York. The chief industry is connected with the extensive locomotive works; there are also iron and steel works, breweries, tanneries, and wool-mills. Pop. (1821) 6551; (1851) 11,228; (1871) 27,730; (1901) 44,500, many of them connected with the Society of Friends. Darlington was incorporated in 1867, since then also returning one member to parliament. Its prosperity dates from the opening, on 27th September 1825, of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first passenger-line employing a locomotive-engine, which engine now stands on a pedestal outside the station. From the 11th century the town belonged to the bishops of Durham, and till 1867 a borough bailiff, appointed by the bishop, managed its affairs. St Cuthbert's collegiate church, a very fine specimen of Early English, was founded in 1160. It has a tower 180 feet high. Among the chief modern erections are the spacious new railway station (1887), a grammar-school, and a free library (1885).