Herculaneum, an ancient city of Italy, so called from the local worship of Hercules, was situated at the north-western base of Mount Vesuvius, 5 miles E. of Naples. In 63 a.d. it was seriously injured by a violent earthquake, and in 79 buried, along with Pompeii and StabiAe, by the memorable eruption of Vesuvius. It now lies at a depth of from 40 to 100 feet below the surface, and is filled up and covered with volcanic tufa. Above it, on the modern surface, are the villages of Portici and Resina. In 1738 systematic excavations were commenced, the chief building explored being the theatre, which has eighteen rows of stone seats, and could accommodate 8000 persons. Part of the Forum with its colonnades, a colonnade, two small temples, and a villa have also been discovered ; and from these buildings many beautiful statues and remarkable paintings have been obtained. In 1880 ruins of extensive baths were brought to light. Among the art-relics of Herculaneum, which far exceed in value and interest those found at Pompeii, are the statues of Aeschines, Agrippina, the Sleeping Faun, the Six Actresses, Mercury, the group of the Satyr and the Goat, the busts of Plato, Scipio Africanus, Augustus, Seneca, Demosthenes, etc.-mostly now in the National Museum at Naples.