Mod'ena (anc. Mutlna), capital of a former duchy, stands on a broad plain in northern Italy, 23 miles by rail NW. of Bologna. Pop. 65,000. The ancient Via Aemilia divides it into the old and new city. The Romanesque cathedral dates from 1099, and has a fine facade; its campanile is one of the great towers of Italy. The ducal (now royal) palace, a picturesque structure of the 17tn century, contains the Este library of 132,000 volumes and 8000 MSS., the Este archives, collections of coins, and pictures by Guido, the Carracci, Guercino, Correggio, etc. Modena possesses besides a university (1678), with 45 teachers and 500 students. The chief manufactured products are silk, leather, vinegar, and cast metals. Originally an Etruscan town, Modena was conquered successively by the Gauls and the Romans, and destroyed by Constantino the Great, the Goths, and the Longobards. The Este family became its masters in 1288, in 1452 became dukes, and were expelled in 1860, when the duchy was incorporated with the Kingdom of Italy.