Pavia (Ital. Pavee'a), a city of northern Italy and a bishop's see, on the left bank of the Ticino, 2 miles above its confluence with the Po, and 21 miles by rail S. of Milan, is still partly surrounded by walls, and was called the ' city of a hundred towers.' The Lombard basilica of San Michele is mentioned as early as 661; in it the old 'kings of Italy' were crowned; in 1863 it was granted the title of ' royal basilica,' and was restored 1863-76. The unfinished cathedral, commenced in 1488, shelters the ashes of St Augustine and Boetius and also Roland's lance. The Cer-tosa, 5 miles N., is a celebrated Carthusian monastery (1396). The castle of the Visconti (begun in 1360) is a massive square arcaded structure. The university, said to have been founded by Charlemagne, but not formally constituted until 1361, has 1100 students and 57 teachers. Attached to it are two colleges - Borro-meo (1563) and Ghislieri (1569) - for poor students, and a library (1772) of 185,000 vols., a botanic garden, etc. Pop. 35,500. Pavia (anc. Ticinum; later Papia, whence the modern name), was founded by Gallic tribes, and was sacked by Attila (452) and by Odoacer (476); Theodoric selected it as his capital after 489. Later on the Lombards made it their capital, and then it became the chief city of the kingdom of Italy. It was sacked in 1500 and 1527-28 by the French, who in 1525 were defeated here by the imperialists, Francis I. being taken prisoner. It fell to Austria in 1814, and to Italy in 1859. Lanfranc and Pope John XIV. were natives.