(1) What are the principal disadvantages of the plunger closet?

(2) Show, by sketch, the most common method of connecting up a vertical kitchen boiler 5 feet long and 15 inches in diameter. State the names and functions of the several pipes.

(3) Are ground-key bibbs or compression bibbs best adapted for high-pressure plumbing systems? Give your reasons.

(4) What is a local vent? Explain its use and state where it should be run.

(5) How would you ventilate a dark water-closet apart-, ment which is lighted with gas?

(6) Rain water from the roof of a country residence is to be stored in a cistern underground and afterwards used for drinking and cooking purposes. Describe, with sketch, a suitable arrangement for filtering the water.

(7) The pressure of gas in the basement of a tall building is 1.25 inches of water. The density of the gas compared with air is . 5. What will be the pressure in inches of water of the gas on the eighteenth floor, which is 220 feet above the basement? Ans. 2.85 in.

(8) Classify "gas fixtures" and distinguish between sun lights and chandeliers.

(9) Suppose that the sight-box diaphragm of a Bunsen photometer is 20 inches from the center of the candle flame and 80 inches from the center of the gas flame; when both sides of the diaphragm appear the same, what is the candle-power of the gas?

(10) Describe the different classes of sinks; state what they are commonly used for, and where they should be located.

(11) Describe a hopper closet and distinguish between the long hopper and the short hopper. For what purposes are long hoppers especially adapted?

(12) Show, by sketch, how a vertical kitchen boiler may be connected up so that hot water can be had at the fixtures before the boiler becomes hot. What objection is there to this method?

(13) (a) How does steam or very hot water affect lead soil pipes? (b) How are cast-iron drainage pipes affected by intermittent discharges of steam or hot water?

(14) Is it proper to discharge waste pipes from safes, refrigerators, or house tanks into a drain or soil pipe? Give your reasons, and state where such waste pipes should discharge.

(15) (a) What should be considered regarding the location and construction of a cesspool? (b) A house sewer must discharge into the sea below low-water mark. What precautions must be taken? Give reasons.

(16) (a) How should lead cold-water pipes be secured to a pipe board? (b) How should 4-inch lead soil pipe be secured to a pipe board? (c) How should lead hot-water pipes be supported when run horizontally? Give your reasons.

(17) What should be the diameter of a wrought-iron gas pipe, 100 yards long, to supply 300 open-flame 5-foot gas burners, the gas pressure being 2 inches of water?

(18) Describe two forms of extension chandeliers, and state their advantages and disadvantages.

(19) (a) What are shields used for in gas-fixture work? (b) If an open burner happens to be 2 feet 6 inches from a ceiling, would you consider it necessary to use a shield?

(20) Mention the different kinds of wash basins, and describe-with sketch, if necessary, three different kinds of waste attachments.

(21) Show, by sketch, a copper-lined wooden bath tub of the common form, fitted up complete with pipe connections for hot and cold water, plug-and-socket waste connection, and overflow horn. Use a running trap, and place a lead safe under the bath.

(22) (a) Under what circumstances are horizontal kitchen boilers mostly used? (b) Can you observe any defects in Fig. 1, which shows a common vertical boiler a connected in a horizontal position to the waterback b by the pipes c and d; the pipe e furnishes hot water to the fixtures and the other pipe feeds the boiler with cold water? If so, state them and show, by sketch, what alterations you would make to obtain the best results.