HO. After a wooden building is sheathed or boarded the next step is generally to finish the eaves and gables, so that the roof covering can be put on, and thus protect the building from the weather. While part of the workmen are covering the roof others are usually-employed in setting the windows and outside door frames and putting up the outside finish, preparatory to covering the wails with siding or shingles.

Sometimes the roof is shingled before the gable ends are finished, the shingles being kept back from the ends of the roof and filled out after the raking cornice is put in place. The gutter or eaves, however, must be finished, at least on top, before the roofers can commence work, and it is also necessary that all of the outside casings, corner boards, etc., be fixed in place before the walls can be covered.

Outside Finish. - The material for outside finish should be soft white pine, cypress or redwood, the last-named wood, however, being seldom used east of the Rocky Mountains, except for piazza posts or parts of large dimensions.

In the better class of buildings clear, well-seasoned stock is generally specified, but on cottages a few small knots are often permitted.

The various parts of the finish should be grooved and tongued together, wherever practicable, and the tongue painted with white lead and oil just before joining the pieces. All joints should be made so as to be protected from the weather as much as possible, and the pieces should be fastened with nails or screws without gluing. All nail heads should be sunk beneath the surface of the finish and the holes filled with putty.

III. Eaves and Gutters. - Details of Construction. - The principal considerations of a practical nature in designing the eaves of a building, and particularly of a dwelling, are to make proper provisions for carrying off the water that falls on the roof, whether in the shape of rain or snow, and providing sufficient projection to protect the walls from water dripping from the eaves. The projection and finish of the eaves also have a very decided effect upon the architectural character of the building, and it is more often this consideration that determines the projection and finish.

Occasionally the eaves of dwellings are finished simply by a gutter with a small moulding underneath, the entire projection not exceeding 6 or 7 inches. When finished in this way they are called "close eaves" Close eaves, although they may answer the purpose in some localities, are not as satisfactory as projecting eaves, and are now seldom used except on dormers.

The holding and conducting away of the water is provided for by means of gutters. These may be made of wood, tin, galvanized iron or copper, and of various shapes. In England cast iron gutters are largely used in connection with wooden eaves, but the author has not heard of their being used in this country.

Outside Finish Gutters Shingle Roofs 20088

Fig. 128.

Wooden Gutters. - In New England wooden gutters are most commonly used on dwellings, and they have been found to be very durable. These gutters are worked out of solid pine or cypress, the common shape being that shown in Figs. 128 and 129. Several sizes of gutters are carried in stock by the larger lumber dealers of Boston and other New England cities, but the more common sizes are 4x6, 5x7 and 5x8 inches. In making the gutters the core is taken out in such a way as to be utilized in making wooden down spouts, or conductors.

When the length of the gutter between angles does not exceed 16 feet it may be made of one piece of wood ; for greater lengths two or more pieces are butted closely together and the joint covered with sheet lead tacked to the two pieces of gutter.

Cypress is the best wood for such gutters, with the possible exception of redwood, but white pine gutters have also been very extensively used in New England.

In nearly all other sections of the country the gutters are made of either tin, galvanized iron or copper ; tin being used principally for lining a wooden form. The shape of metal gutters may be varied to suit the pitch of the roof or the taste of the designer, as, with the exception of cheap hanging gutters, metal gutters are not carried in stock, but made to order as required. Metal gutters will be described in connection with the examples of eave construction.

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Fig. 129.

XI2. Examples of Wooden Eave Construction. - The manner of finishing the eaves of buildings varies with the style of the building, and also somewhat in different localities, and even the same architect will vary his details more or less for each building that he designs, but all the common forms of wooden eave construction may be represented by four or five types. Brick and stone buildings, when erected in large cities, are generally finished with a stone, terra cotta or metal cornice, as wooden cornices are not usually permitted within the fire limits, and are also not as durable as the other materials, but outside of the fire limits brick buildings with pitch roofs are generally finished with wooden eaves in the same manner as wooden buildings. On the cheaper class of buildings the construction shown in Fig. 128, A and B, is probably more commonly seen than any other, the wooden gutter being used in the New England States and a tin or galvanized gutter in other sections of the country. The planceer may either be nailed to the bottom of the rafters, as shown at B, or may be carried in level, as shown at A. This form of cornice is generally termed a box cornice, as the rafter ends are " boxed " in. When an open metal gutter is placed under the eaves of a box cornice, as at A, this construction answers its purpose very well, but when a wooden gutter is used, as at B, it has been found that in the Northern States during many days in winter snow is apt to lodge in the gutter, and the snow on the roof melting a little during the middle of the day, runs down to the snow in the gutter, where it freezes again, and in this way the ice backs up over the gutter and under the first two or three courses of shingles and drips down inside of the boxing, and sometimes inside of the walls, and the only way in which this can be prevented with a cornice like that shown at B is to tin the gutter and 2 or 3 feet up on the roof, which looks very unsightly.

Fig. 129a.

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Fig. 130.

Where wooden gutters are to be used, the best method of constructing the eaves, from a practical standpoint, is undoubtedly that shown in Fig. 129. In this construction the rafters are exposed and there is an open space above the back of the gutter, so that there is little danger of ice backing up on to the roof. The rafter ends may be plain or ornamented, as desired, and if it is desired to use heavier material for the exposed ends than is necessary for the whole rafter, the rafters may be cut off on a line with the outside of the wall and false rafter ends spiked to them and to the plate, as shown in Fig. 131. In the Northern States, and wherever the building is much exposed to the wind, a board (B, Fig. 129) should be cut between the rafters and let into them about inch to keep the attic warm and to prevent snow from being driven through the cracks.

Fig. 131.

Where it is not practicable to leave an open space above the gutter the method of applying the gutter shown in fig. 129.a is believed to be the best, and 134. The troughs are usually made of galvanized iron and of the shape shown in Fig. 135, this being a stock pattern. On sheds and very cheap buildings tin gutters are frequently used, but they are far from durable and cannot be recommended. Where some pretense to ornamentation is made, as in Fig. 136, the gutter may be made of 16-ounce cold rolled copper, which, while much more expensive, will last almost forever.

In the Northern States when gutters are placed under the edge of the roof, as in Figs. 128, 129 and 132, the outer edge should be kept just a little below the line of the roof so that the snow may slide off without striking the gutter. Very often the first course of shingles is raised inch above the roof boarding, as shown in Figs. 128 and 129.

The projection of the eaves may, of course, be made to suit the taste of the designer, but with common box cornices the back of the facia is generally set about 12 inches from the wall line. Open cornices generally have a projection of from 18 inches to 4 feet, the heavy projection being used principally for the effect of the shadow, and in warm climates to make the rooms cooler.

When eave troughs are used the author recommends that the Ber-ger Hanger, of which one pattern is shown in Fig. 134, be specified (unless an ornamental bracket is preferred), as such hangers are far superior to the cheap affairs ordinarily used by tinners. The Berger

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Fig. 136.

Outside Finish Gutters Shingle Roofs 20092

Fig. 137.

Hanger is made in two parts - the shank and the hook - which are bolted together. Several styles of shanks are made so that they may be screwed to the facia or to the side of the rafter, or nailed to the top of the roof boarding. The hook is made 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 inches wide. By means of the holes in the shank and hanger the height of the hook on the shank may be varied from 1/8 inch to 2 inches, so as to give a fall to the gutter. These hangers can be applied to any cornice, old or new, and the hook may be readily adjusted at any time. They cost only about 6 cents apiece.

When no particular hanger is specified, one similar to that shown in Fig. 135 is generally used, as it costs 2 or 3 cents less than the Berger Hanger. Such hangers, however, are very flimsy affairs, and not suitable for good buildings.

Eave troughs, when made of good material, with slip joints, make a very practical gutter, and one which cannot very well get out of order, and if a leak occurs it will not damage the building. They are not very ornamental, however, and their use is therefore generally confined to cottages, stables, porches, etc.

Next to the eave trough, the simplest metal gutter for the edge of a roof is that shown in Fig. 132. This form of gutter is very extensively used. It makes a neat finish and answers its purpose very satisfactorily when provided with a sufficient fall to the outlets. It is rather more expensive in most localities than a wooden or tin-lined gutter.' When used it should be made either of galvanized iron of not larger gauge than No. 26 {24 is to be preferred) or of 16-ouncecold rolled copper. All end joints should be soldered and riveted unless the gutter is very long, when one or more expansion joints should be provided. The back of the gutter should be turned up on the roof at least 3 inches.

Fig. 138. - Cornice F. R. Comstock, Architect.

About the only trouble that the author has experienced with this type of gutter is that when applied to overhanging eaves it is usually necessary to make the gutter level, and when this is done the gutter after a time gets clogged with dirt and leaves, thus preventing the water from draining perfectly and permitting it to freeze in the winter months, thereby often opening the joints in the gutter. Where the lengths of gutter are short and the cornice has a good projection the want of a pitch to the gutter does not give serious trouble, but where the lengths are long or the projection very slight the gutter should always have a fall to the outlet of at least 1 inch in 20 feet. With a single gutter this fall is obtained by making the back of the gutter higher at the low end than at the other. The author has found that metal workers seldom give any pitch to such gutters unless it is specified.

When a metal gutter forms the crown member of a box cornice, as in Figs. 140 and 141, it is almost necessary that the exposed face of the gutter shall be level. To secure this, and also a pitch to the gutter, it is customary to make a false front for the gutter, as shown in the drawings. This front is set level, but the gutter proper has a pitch of an inch or more, as may be desired. Wherever metal gutters are used on brick cornices this arrangement should always be adopted.

There is a slight objection to having the gutter at the very edge of a heavy projecting eaves, in that it requires a heavy goose-neck or a long piece of pipe to connect the gutter with the top of the conductor, and such connecting pipes, being necessarily quite conspicuous, often mar the appearance of the building. For this reason many architects prefer with such cornices to place the gutter on top of the roof, as in Figs. 131 and 133, as by this arrangement a much shorter connecting pipe may be used, and it is also much less conspicuous.

When drawing the detail of gutter and cornice the draughtsman should always consider how the gutter is to be connected with the outlet pipe, and locate the gutter so that a neat and practical connection may be made. The outlet pipe should always cut through the bottom of the gutter, but may be cut on a slant if more convenient