This section is from the book "Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction", by Laura I. Baldt. Also available from Amazon: Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction.
Used to finish the ends of set-in or tailored pockets, the ends of seams or the stitching of plaits on tailored garments. The simplest of these is called a Bar tack (Fig. 246A), used generally at the ends of pockets. To make: Bring the needle up at the end of the pocket on the outer row of stitching on one side and put it through on the outer row of stitching on the other side, thus making one long stitch across the end of the pocket; repeat two, three or more times, according to the number of thread used and the size tack desired, bring the needle up and putting it through the same hole each time at the respective ends of the stitch. When enough of these long stitches have been laid, bring the needle up at one end of the bar and exactly below it,. put the needle through to the wrong side above the bar and exactly opposite to where it just came up, making a small stitch straight across the long ones; bring the needle up again below the bar exactly beside the first stitch and repeat, in this manner covering the whole bar with satin stitch. It is necessary that the needle be brought up and put through with two motions, as described, in order to be sure that the long stitches on the wrong side are also covered the same as those on the right side. If desired, each end of this tack may be finished with a small bar tack (Fig. 2465) made in the same way.
Fig. 244. - Couching.
Fig. 245. - French knot.
Arrowhead tack (Fig. 247) is used on the ends of the pocket in middy blouses, shirtwaists, etc. To work: Run needle through center to point A in order to fasten end of thread without using a" knot, put it down at point B, bring it up again at B, to the right of stitch just made, put it down at the right of A and bring up at the left of A, then pass needle under the second stitch made from A to B, and put needle through to wrong side at C, bring it up again just at the left of C and down at the left of A, up again at the right of A and down at the right of B, up at right of that stitch and so on until arrowhead is completed. Keep in mind that two stitches are made parallel to line AB, or to line AC, before reverting to the other side and that each time the first stitch of pair made parallel to line AG is passed under the last made stitch parallel to line AB.
Fig. 246. - Bar tack.
Fig. 247. - Arrowhead tack.
Star (Fig. 248). - The five-pointed star as used on the collar of middy blouses is made in the same way as the arrowhead, i.e., each point of the star is worked separately, placing the stitches as in the arrowhead, except that the stitches from points B and C progress downward toward the center of the star instead of straight across toward each other as in arrowhead. Anchors, eagles or other emblems used on sailor or middy blouses are worked with laid or satin stitch (Fig. 258). It is a good plan to baste a piece of crinoline or canvas under the material upon which the emblem is to be worked, and after working cut the canvas away close to the stitching. The chevron or bars used on the sleeve of blouse are not embroidered, but cut from scarlet or blue material, three-eighth inch wide and may be stitched to the sleeve, or applied with a straight stitch worked over the edges like laid stitch.
Hemstitching (Fig. 249) is an attractive way to finish the top of a hem. It must be done along the thread of the material as threads must be drawn in preparation for the work. To prepare material, decide upon the width of hem to be made, measure up from the edge of the material, twice this amount plus one-eighth inch for the first fold of the hem; at this point draw the first thread from the material. The number of threads to be drawn, or the width of open work to be made at the top of the hem, will be determined by the weight of the material, the depth of the hem and the size of the garment or article which is being made. When the threads are all drawn, fold and baste the hem to place, being careful to have the edge of the hem lie exactly along the lower edge of drawn space.
Fig. 248. - Star.
Fig. 249. - Hemstitching.
To work: Hold the wrong side of hem toward you, the line of open space along the cushion of first finger on left hand, pass the needle from left to right through the first fold of hem, to conceal the end of the thread, do not use a knot. Now pass the needle from right to left behind a group of four or five threads in the drawn space and pull the thread through, again pass the needle behind the same group of threads and through the folded edge of hem, but not through the cloth behind hem, draw the thread tightly, thus holding the group of threads close together, repeat with each new group of threads. Double hemstitching. After the foregoing line of work has been accomplished, turn the article around and repeat the same stitch on the opposite side of drawn space, using the same groups of threads on this side, thus making straight bars of threads across the open space (Fig. 250). Diagonal hemstitching. Make the first row as in plain hemstitching. In the second row, let the needle lift half of each, same group of threads making a zig-zag line of bars (Fig. 251).
Fig. 250. - Double hemstitching.
Fig. 251. - Diagonal hemstitching.
Smocking (Fig. 254) is an ornamental way of arranging and holding fulness in various parts of garments, in place. The material to be smocked must be gathered very regularly and drawn up to about one-fourth the measurement when plain, and then on the surface of the gathers ornamental stitches are worked. In order to make the gathering very regular, the material should first bemarked or "charted" on the wrong side by horizontal rows of dots, the space between the dots, usually from one-eighth to three-eighth inch, to be governed by the weight of material and the amount to be gathered (Fig. 252). The distance between the horizontal rows of dots, varies from three-eighth to three-quarter inch. The dots may be marked with pencil, using a ruler to measure and guide, or transfer patterns may be purchased and used for this purpose. For the gathering, use strong thread, No. 40 to No. 60, according to the weight of the material; work on the wrong side, take one little back-stitch at the first dot to prevent knot pulling through material later on, then gather by lifting the material between dots on the needle and passing over just a few threads of the material on each dot. When all lines of gathering are in, draw the material up to about one-quarter the original width and fasten by winding each thread on a pin or by tying two threads together. Next turn to the right side and pull the gathers into place so that each stitch full comes up evenly in place, the same on each row of gathering, thus laying the fulness in even lines throughout (Fig. 253).
Fig. 252. - A, charting material; B, gathering material.
Fig. 253. - Smocking - Method of making stitches; upper row, outline stitch; second row, cable stitch; third row, wave stitch; lower row, diamond stitch.