For breach of the covenant of quiet enjoyment a few jurisdictions still apply the early rule applicable to contracts to sell real estate,76 and if the breach of covenant is not accompanied with moral fault, but is due to a superior title, the tenant is confined to the recovery of such payments or expenses as he may have incurred. Ordinarily this will restrict him to nominal damages, unless he has already paid rent.77 But this rule would not be followed in most jurisdictions,78 and in any case where the landlord has actively evicted the tenant, recovery may be had at once for the value of the unexpired period of the lease; that is, the difference between the promised rent and the rental value of the term, or the difference between the contract price and the market price,79 together with any consequential damages which fall within the general principles governing the allowance of such damages.80 On breach of a covenant by the landlord to repair, the tenant may make the repairs himself and recover the reasonable expense of so doing.81 If the tenant does not make the repairs himself, the ordinary measure of damages is the difference in the rental value of the premises without the promised repairs and with them.82 If, however, the repairs involve slight expense, the measure of damages in such a case may properly be the expense of making the repairs. If a few window panes are broken in a house in a northern latitude, the rental value of the premises kept in that condition might be very slight, but the measure of a tenant's damage if his landlord broke a covenant in the lease to repair, could hardly be based on this diminished rental value, but rather on the expense of making the repairs.83 And if the premises cannot be used until the repairs are made, the value for this period may also be recovered.84 Other consequential damages may also be recovered if brought within the general principles governing such damage; but damages for injury to the tenant or his property from continued failure to make repairs cannot

44 Am. Rep. 114; Fitsgerald v. Mandas, 21 Ont. L. R. 312; cj. Riley v. Hale, 158 Mass. 240, 33 N. . 491.

75 Rice v. Dudley, 6$ Ala. 68; Res-pini v. Porta, 89 Cal. 464, 26 Pac. 967, 23 Am. St. Rep. 488; Hinde p. Man-dansky, 161 111. App. 216; Merrill v. Willis, 51 Neb. 162, 70 N. W. 914; Underhill v. Collins, 132 N. Y. 269, 30 N. E. 576; Milling v. Becker, 96 Pa. 182; Goldman v. Broyles (Tex. Civ. App.), 141 8. W. 283. See also Copeland v. Stephens, 1 B. & Aid. 593; Ex parte Houghton, 1 Low. 554; Watson v. Merrill, 136 Fed. 359,69 C. G. A. 185, 69 L. R. A. 719.

76 Supra, Sec.1399.

77 American Ac. Go. v. Pocono Ac. Go., 183 Fed. 193, 105 G. G. A. 625 (Pa.); Jeff era v. Eastern, 113 Gal. 345, 45 Pac. 680; Kelly v. Dutch Church, 2 Hill, 105; Mack v. Patchin, 42 N. Y. 167, 1 Am. Rep. 506; Jacobs v. Schulte, 153 N. Y. App. D. 693, 138 N. Y. S. 768; Lanigan v. Kille, 97 Pa. 120, 39 Am. Rep. 797; Bart-ram v. Hering, 18 Pa. Super. 395.

78 Elliott v. Bankston, (Ala.) 45

So. 173; Griesheimer v. Botham, 105 111. App. 585; Riley v. Hale, 158 Mass. 240, 33 N. E. 491; Raynor v. Valentin Blats Brewing Go., 100 Wis. 414, 76 N. W. 343. See also Nelson v. Goddard, 162 Wis. 66, 155 N. W. 943.

79 Tyson v. Chestnut, 118 Ala. 387, 405, 24 So. 73; Bromberg v. Eugen-otto Ac. Go., 162 Ala. 359, 50 So. 314; Wyatt v. Burdette, 43 Colo. 208, 95 Pac 336; Bass v. West, 110 Ga. 698, 36 S. E. 244; Dobbins v. Duquid, 65 111. 464; Riley v. Hale, 158 Mass. 240, 33 N. E. 491; Grove v. Youell, 110 Mich. 285, 68 N. W. 132, 33 L. R. A. 297; Shutt v. Lock-ner, 77 Neb. 397, 109 N. W. 383; Clarkson v. Skidmore, 46 N. Y. 297; Williamson v. Stevens, 84 N. Y. App. D. 518, 82 N. Y. S. 1047; Sloan v. Hart, 150 N. G. 269, 63 S. E. 1037, 21 L. R. A. (N. S.) 239, 134 Am. St. Rep. 911; Rhodes v. Baird, 16 Oh. St. 573; Amsden 0. Atwood, 69 Vt. 527, 38 Atl. 263; Popoekey v. Munk-wits, 68 Wis. 322, 32 N. W. 35, 60 Am. Rep. 858.

80 Tamblyn v. Johnston, 126 Fed. 267, 62 C. C. A. 601; Kjelsberg v. Chilberg, 177 Fed. 109, 100 C. C. A. 529; Gray 9. Iinton, 38 Colo. 175 88 Pac. 749; Taylor v. Cooper, 104 Mich. 72, 62 N. W. 157. See as to breach of covenant as to part of the leased premises, Irwin v. Noble, 176 Pa. 594, 35 Atl. 217, 35 L. R. A. 415.

81 Young v. Berman, 96 Ark. 78, 131 S. W. 62, 34 L. R. A. (N. S.) 977; Roes 9. Stockwell, 19 Ind. App. 86, 49 N. . 50; Rutland ». Dayton, 60 11158; Reiner v. Jones, 38 N. Y. App. Div. 441; Ward v. Eelsey, 42 Barb. 582; McCardell v. Williams, 19 R. I. 701, 36 AtL 719.

82 Bien v. Hess, 102 Fed. 436, 42 C C. A. 421; Young ». Berman, 96 Ark. 78, 131 S. W. 62, 34 L. R. A. (N. S.) 977; Rubens v. Hill, 213 111. 823, 72 N. E. 1127; Leick v. Trits, 94 Iowa, 322, 62 N. W. 855; Miller v. Sullivan, 77 Eans. 252, 94 Pac.

266, 16 L. R. A. (N. S.) 737; Biggs v. McCurley, 76 Md. 409, 25 Atl. 466; Godfrey v. India Wharf B. Co., 87 N. Y. App. Div. 123, 84 N. Y. S. 90; Sanger p. Smith (Tex. Civ. App.), 135 S. W. 189; Kellogg v. Malick, 125 Wis. 239, 103 N. W. 1116; Brown v. Toronto General Hospital, 23 Ont. 599.

83 Young v. Berman, 96 Ark. 78, 131 S. W. 62, 34 L. R. A. (N. S.) 977; Aikin v. Perry, 119 Ga. 263, 46 S. E. 93; Torres v. Starke, 132 La. 1045,

62 So. 137; Biggs v. McCurley, 76 Md. 409, 415, 25 Atl. 466; Caves v. Bartek, 85 Neb. 511,513,123 N. W. 1031; and cases cited infra, n. 85.

84 Birch 0. Clifford, 8 T. L. Rep. 103 (action by landlord on tenant's covenant); Young v. Berman, 96 Ark. 78, 131 S. W. 62, 34 L. R. A. (N. S.) 977; Biggs v. McCurley, 76 Md. 409, 25 Atl. 466; Hexter v. Knox,

63 N. Y. 661.

ordinarily be recovered because under the rule of avoidable consequences the tenant should have made the repairs himself and recovered their cost from the landlord.85 But where the tenant in justifiable reliance on the landlord's promise to repair has suffered consequential injury which was a natural and probable consequence of the landlord's unexpected default, damages for the injury may be recovered.86 For breach of other covenants of landlord or tenant, the ordinary principles of the law of damages will generally furnish a sufficient guide.