Contra, American Exchange National Bank v. Federal National Bank, 226 Pa. St. 483, 134 Am. St. Rep. 1071, 27 L; R. A. (N.S.) 666, 18 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 444, 75 Atl. 683.

15 United States. Leonard v. Marshall, 82 Fed. 396.

Colorado. Chamberlain v. Gilman, 10 Colo. 94, 14 Pac. 107; Perkins v. Peterson, 2 Colo. App. 242, 29 Pac. 1135.

Indiana. State v. Tomlinson, 16 Ind. App. 662, 50 Am. St. Hep. 335, 45 N. E. 1116.

Iowa. Moore v. Lowrey, 25 la. 336,

05 Am. Dec. 700; Howe v. Jones, 57 Ia. 130, 8 N. W. 451, 10 N. W. 299; Hoffman v. Smith, 04 Ia. 495, 63 N. W. 182; Seymour v. Aultman, 109 Ia. 297, 80 N. W. 401; Tone v. Shankland, 110 Ia. 525, 81 N. W. 789; State Central Ravings Bank v. St. Paul Fire

& Marine Insurance Co., - Ia. - , 168 N. W. 201.

Kansas. McCubbin v. Atchinson, 12 Kan. 166.

Kentucky. Beard v. Sharp (Ky.), 65 S. W. 810; Newby v. Hill, 59 Ky. (2 Met.) 530.

Maine. Porter v. Bullard, 26 Me. 448.

Massachusetts. Jones v. Witter, 13 Mass. 304.

Michigan. Draper v. Fletcher, 26 Mich. 154; Harris v. Chamberlain, 126 Mich. 280, 85 N. W. 728; Kaufman v. State Savings Bank, 151 Mich. 65. 123 Am. St. Rep. 250, 18 L. R. A. (N.S.) 630, 114 N. W. 863.

Nebraska. Sackett v. Montgomery, 57 Neb. 424, 73 Am. St. Rep. 522, 77 N. W. 1083.

New Hampshire. Thompson v. Emery,, 27 N. H. 260.

New Jersey, Hutchinson v. Low, 13 N. J. L. 246.

North Dakota. Roberts v. Bank, 8 N. D. 474, 79 N. W. 993.

New York. Hooker v. Eagle Bank, 30 N. Y. 83, 86 Am. Deo. 351; Risley v. Phoenix Bank, 83 N. Y. 318, 38 Am. Rep. 421; Jones v. Reynolds, 120 N. Y. 213, 24 N. E. 279.

South Carolina. Miller v. Newell, 20 S. Car. 123, 47 Am. Rep. 833; Barron v. Williams, 58 S. Car. 280, 70 Am. St. Rep. 840, 36 S. E. 561.

Tennessee. Cook v. Shute. 3 Tenn. (Cook) 67.

Texas. Rollison v. Hope, 18 Tex. 446.

If the assignment is in writing and there is no prior valid oral assignment, delivery is essential to its validity.18 Hence, if placed by the assignor in an envelope addressed to the assignee and taken by the assignee while the assignor is unconscious from the effect of poison, no delivery exists and the assignment has no effect.19

Delivery of a written non-negotiable contract or memorandum with intent to assign the same operates as an assignment.20 It has-been said, however, that the mere indorsement and. delivery of a non-negotiable note does not of itself amount to an assignment.21 A building contractor's marking a bill "approved," rendered for material furnished for the building, is not an assignment of so much of the contract price as is sufficient to pay such bill.22 A power of attorney to collect a debt is not of itself an assignment,23 but it may be a means of effecting an assignment if such is the intention of the parties,24 as where the attorney is to retain the amount owed him by the principal.25 If A is indebted to B, and C pays A's debt to B under contract with B to assign to C A's indebtedness, such contract operates as an assignment, at least, in equity.26 But if C makes such payment as a loan to A, and without any contract for an assignment with either A or B, no assignment exists.27

Vermont. Hackett v. Moxley, 65 Vt. 71, 25 Atl. 898.

Washington. Seattle National Bank v. Emmons, 16 Wash. 585, 48 Pac. 262.

West Virginia. Bentley v. Ins. Co., 40 W. Va. 729, 23 S. E. 584; Wilt v. Huffman, 46 W. Va. 473, 33 S. E. 279.

Wisconsin. Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. Wright, 153 Wis. 252, Ann. Cas. 1914D, 697, 140 N. W. 1078. Contrary statements have been qualified as applicable at most to law and not to equity.

See Palmer v. Merrill, 60 Mass. (6 Cush.) 382, 52 Am. Deo. 782, as qualified in Richardson v. White, 167 Mass. 58, 44 N. E. 1072. See also, Ebel v. Piehl, 134 Mich. 64, 95 N. W. 1004.

16 Vanderlip v. Barnes, 101 Neb. 573, 163 N. W. 856; Roberts v. Bank, 8 N. D. 474, 79 N. W. 993.

17 Kenneweg v. Schilansky, 45 W. Va. 521, 31 S. E. 949.

18 Erickson v. Kelly, 9 N. D. 12, 81 N. W. 77; Leonard v. Kebler, 50 O. S. 444, 34 N. E. 659, But see Kulp v. Marsh, 181 Pa. St. 627, 59 Am. St. Rep. 687, 37 Atl. 913, where an assignment was held valid though not delivered, but written on the insurance contract to be assigned. And see to the same effect, Williamson v. Yager,

91 Ky. 282, 34 Am. St. Rep. 184, 15 S. W. 660.

19 Leonard v. Kebler, 50 O. S. 444, 34 N. E. 659.

20 Alabama. Insurance policy. Han-chey v. Hurley, 129 Ala. 306, 30 So. 742.

Iowa. Account book. Preston v. Peterson, 107 Ia. 244, 77 N. W. 864.

Maine. Gledhill v. McCoombs, 110 Me. 341, 45 L. R. A. (N.S.) 26, 86 Atl. 247.

Massachusetts. Coupons. Tyndale v. Randall, 154 Mass. 103, 27 N. E. 882; Bone v. Holmes, 195 Mass. 495, 81 N. E. 290.

Minnesota. Time check. Citizens' State Bank v. Bonness, 76 Minn. 45, 78 N. W. 875.

New York. Risley v. Phenix Bank, 83 N. Y. 318, 38 Am. Rep. 421.

North Carolina. Chattel mortgage, Hodges v. Wilkinson, 111 N. Car. 56, 17 L. R. A. 545, 15 S. E. 941 (assignment indorsed on margin).

Pennsylvania. Hani v. Ins. Co., 197 Pa. St. 276, 80 Am. St. Rep. 819, 47 Atl. 200.

West Virginia. Bentley v. Ins. Co., 40 W. Va. 729, 23 S. E. 584.

21 Chicago, etc., Bank v. Trust Co., 190 111. 404, 83 Am. St. Rep. 138, 60 N. E. 586.

Discounting a draft with a bill of lading or other collateral attached, gives a qualified interest in such collateral, which becomes absolute if the drawee does not accept the draft.28 But until the draft is paid or discounted no title passes.29 Assignment of a time check given by a contractor to a laborer, does not operate as an assignment of the right of such laborer to bring an action upon the bond of such contractor.30 Under the Negotiable Instruments Law, a bank check does not have this effect.31

22 Flaherty v. Lumber Co., 58 N. J. Eq. 467, 44 Atl. 186.

23 Rogers v. Lindsey, 51 U. S. (13 How.) 441, 14 L. ed. 215; Halliburton v. Nance, 40 Ark. 161; Watson v. Philadelphia, 142 Pa. St. 179, 21 Atl. 815 (hence the debtor can set off damages for a breach by the principal of another contact).

24 Murphy v. Bordwell, 83 Minn. 54, 52 L. R. A. 84ft, 85 N. W. 915; National Bank v. Trust Co., 17 D. C. App. 112.

25 Key's Estate, 137 Pa. St. 565, 21 Am. St. Rep. 896, 20 Atl. 710.

26 Crumlish v. Improvement Co., 38 W. Va. 390, 45 Am. St. Rep. 872, 23 Bank v. Trust Co., 17 D. C. App. 112.

27 United States v. Rundle, 107 Fed. 227, 52 L. R. A. 505; Bartholomew v. Bank, 57 Kan. 594, 47 Par. 519: Crum-lish v. Improvement Co., 38 W. Va. 390, 45 Am. St. Rep. 872, 23 L. R. A. 120, 18 S. E. 456.

28 Alabama. American National Bank v. Henderson. 123 A'a. 612, 82 Am. St. Rep. 147, 26 So. 498

Iowa. Shaffer Bros. v. Rhynders, 116 Ia. 472, 89 N. W. 1099.

Massachusetts. Hathaway v. Haynes, 124 Mass. 311.

New York. City Bank v. Ry., 44 N. Y. 136.

Ohio. Emery v. Bank, 25 O. S. 360, 18 Am. Rep. 299.

Oklahoma. Marsh Milling & Grain Co. v. Guaranty State Bank, - Okla. - , L. R. A. 19181), 704. 171 Pac. 1122.

Pennsylvania. Richardson v. Nathan, 167 Pa. St. 513, 31 Atl. 740.

Texas. Provident National Bank v. C. D. Hartnett Co., 100 Tex. 214, 97 S. W. 689.

West Virginia. Neill v. Produce Co.,

41 W. Va. 37, 23 S. E. 702.

29 Kentucky Refining Co. v. Refining Co., 104 Ky. 559, 84 Am. St. Rep. 468,

42 L. R. A. 353, 47 S. W. 602 (hence the goods are liable to attachment by creditors of the consignor).

30 Northwestern National Bank v. Guardian Casualty and Guaranty Co., 93 Wash. 635, 161 Pac. 473.

31 National Market Co. v. Maryland Casualty Co., 100 Wash. 377. 17 Pac. 479 (on rehearing, the check having been held at the original hearing, 100

An agreement to pay a certain amount out of a certain fund may, as between the assignor and the assignee, amount to a partial assignment in equity, giving a lien on such fund.32 Acquiescence in performance by a third party may amount to assignment to such third party.33 If an oral chose in action is to be assigned, it is said that an assignment in writing or something equivalent thereto is necessary.34 The fact that the assignor is a corporation, that the assignee is its president, and that he has power to transfer such chose on the books of the corporation, does not dispense with the necessity of a written assignment.35